Wednesday, July 31, 2019

Factors Affecting the Development of a Child

‘Neuroses are only acquired during early childhood even though their symptoms may not make their appearance until much later. The events of the first year are of paramount importance for a child’s whole subsequent life’. (Freud, 1902) Regardless of age, nationality, gender or ethnicity every human has something in common; we are all born as babies. This essay will examine and research factors in depth in order to simplify the complicated process of identifying key factors including scientific data as well as theories and methods derived from experts of different fields.A diverse view will be analysed of the developing process in order to understand the intricate events underlying these factors from the first beat of the heart to a moment by moment development and co-ordination of thousands of biological events of the nervous and endocrine systems of the new-born will also be monitored. Our research will engage in a holistic approach, reflecting on the nativism ver sus empiricism debate.After looking at a broad spectrum of topics, issues and views and their implications on certain theories and methodologies, this evidence will guide us to conclude a hypothesis on factors that relate to the effect of the development of a baby in its first year. Looking from an evolutionary perspective, biological explanations suggest that the bond of attachment occurs naturally as a result of innate urges on the part of their baby and their carer during a critical period (Bowlby).In support of this, Lorenz carried out an experiment on geese that had just hatched and been removed from their mothers, only for them to see humans and sure enough they imprinted the scientist instead of their mothers. Similarly, this lead Bowlby to hypothesize that both human infants and mothers has evolved an innate need made in an optimal time which propelled them towards their mothers. For this reason he also predicted that young children who do not experience a warm and continuin g attachment in the first year would fail to develop a healthy relationship in the future.In other words Bowlby claimed that ‘mother love in infancy is as important for mental health as are vitamins and proteins for physical health’. In contrast, a longitudinal study conducted on a large number of boy’s aged 9-12 years found quite a few who had been separated from their mothers as infants but seemed well adjusted as they entered adolescence (Rutter, 1933). However, causality is difficult to determine making it difficult to disentangle the effect of maternal separation on later behaviour as there may be other confounding factors that may contribute or even cause the final result.By far, the most critical blow to attachment theory comes from ‘reversal’ studies which show early disruption followed by complete recovery (Clarke and Clarke). Similarly, recent research has shown that babies are much more flexible and resilient than Bowlby thought and the bo nd between the mother and child is not irreplaceable or irreversible but babies are capable of forming attachments to several adults and have been revealed possible and successful e. g. adopted children (The Tizard study of adopted children).Still, much of this information is based on retrospective data and so may not be accurate in drawing firm conclusions to maternal attachment being an exclusive factor that can affect the development of babies in their first year of life. Additionally, the human givens approach also asserts the view that there are biological needs which when not met lead to severe distress in humans such as an infant growing up in a socially deprived environment.This has also been positively correlated to poorer health and thus weaker cognitive development in young children (DCSF, 2009) which may be because living in a low income household or deprived area makes it more likely that infants will be exposed to risk factors that affect their life chances for example domestic violence, smoking, illness, low aspirations etc. (SETF, 2008) and even poor nutrition. Like all mammals, humans obtain life-sustaining nourishment through suckling and throughout the history of the human species; the only or primary source of nourishment for infants was breast milk which has many virtues (Newman, 1995).Alongside it also involves the necessary skin-to skin contact from the mother which gives the baby a feeling of warmth and security as well as strengthening the infant’s immune system. In spite of this, the majority of infants are still formula-fed predominantly in undeveloped countries where poor, uneducated parents often dilute the formula in an effort to make the expensive powder last longer. As a result, in such circumstances the parent’s attempts to promote the health of their babies end up having the opposite effect (Popkin and Doan, 1990) with later development of inadequate growth and physical deficiencies.And although every individual has a ‘blueprint’ for growth, but realisation of this growth potential is only possible if nutrient supplies in childhood are adequate (Jackson, 1996). From this it could again be inferred that situational factors such as poverty also have a detrimental effect on childhood development which is why low birth weight is more likely in children from lower socio economic groups. This has been exemplified from the recent case of Humzah khan whose mother starved him in a cot for 21 months and was more concerned about feeding her alcohol addiction in place of her malnourished son.Although the health services were called they were turned away many times before the case was brought into global attention which points to the difficulty in gaining access to the private sphere of one’s home. On the whole, Statistics do highlight that children from low-income households are more likely to experience problems with nutrition leading to a negative influence on the mental well-bein g of children and in the long run may even lead to childhood obesity.Consequently, health economics even point to the bidirectionality of this relationship and propose that ‘poverty breeds ill-health, ill-health maintains poverty’ (Wagstaff, 2002). Furthermore, scientific evidence also illustrates that infants with vulnerable and stressful environments at home can lead to physical changes that affect a baby’s cognitive ability and performance of their brain in the first year of life (DCSF).Neuropsychologists demonstrate how the negative impact of stress sculpts the developing brain architecture by reducing the number of synapses in the prefrontal cortex and thus weakening the connections in neurones. Besides, other scientific research also explains that that excess amount of cortisol also has major toxic effects on a developing child as well as the ACE study pyramid which illustrates that certain experiences during a child’s first year of life are major ri sk factors for the leading cause of illness, trauma and even death in later life.Hence, this gives reason for us to believe how crucial the environment is as a factor that can affect the development of babies in their first year of life. However, unlike broken bones irreversible maldevelopment of brain areas mediating empathy resulting from emotional neglect in infancy is not readily available.On the other hand while rarely studied in humans the neurodevelopmental impact of sensory deprivation is the subject of hundreds of animal studies (Coleman and Riesin, 1968) although it could be argued that it is quite difficult to extrapolate the results from animals to human. Nevertheless, others counter argue that this is only done when it would be unethical to manipulate human lives due to practical and ethical reasons and even though caution is necessary in generalizing results from animals to people, similarities between species sometimes allow this to be done.Besides, case studies of hu mans e. g.  Genie Curtiss also emphasize the view that social deprivation and neglect does in fact influence later development who suffered from extreme privation since birth and even though she did later learn some language it was not deemed as ‘normal’ and so she never caught up developmentally. (Curtiss, 1977). Albeit, it was very detailed on the other hand critics have argued that it was only a case study and so cannot be generalised to the wider population.However, wider support and brain research have strengthened this study by using a triangulation of methods, thus making it more valid and less prone to doubt. Through these cases many policies were also implicated resulting in far-reaching changes for example through Bowlby’s maternal deprivation hypothesis practices were derived to avoid the unnecessary separation of children from their parents for example parents being encouraged to remain with their children in hospital and the provision of facilities for them to stay overnight (NCT policy).Likewise, other policies such as the Green paper: every child Matters (HM treasury, 2003) was published in response to the death of Victoria Climbie whose plight was ignored by 12 different professionals. In response the Green paper with its strong focus on better support for parenting and families starts with five overall aims for all children including being healthy (NHS reforms) and not being prevented by economic disadvantage from achieving their full potential (Dfes 2002).Therefore, it can be insinuated that the political factor is also dominant in the physical and emotional development of babies in the first year of life. In spite of this it is important to consider the continuous change in child culture particularly in the 21st century. Yet, this has also had many positive implications for example the newly emerging idea of babies as the ‘nation’s future’ led to a marked change in the level of influence the governme nt was now prepared to try to exert upon families thereby displaying a significant reduction in the number of infant mortality rates (Dwork, 1987).Moreover, the emergence and notion of a child-centred society set new laws including family allowances in 1945 for children in low income households as well as the reform of a national health service to create ‘comprehensive health and rehabilitation services for the prevention and cure of disease’ (1948). However, differences in broader culture means that not all countries have similar policies and practices particularly in collectivist cultures where children are seen as an economic liability (Greenfield, 1995).Nonetheless, todays interconnected society means that many agencies are now working together with a multi-agency approach based on an international level This reinforces the view that ecology, the environment and nurture shape the development of babies in their first year of life. in the same way empiricists have ins isted that at birth the mind is a blank slate a ‘tabula rasa’ and that all knowledge is created by experience (Locke, 1704). Conversely, within developmental psychology with the growth of new technology there is now a growing emphasis on ‘inborn biases’ or ‘constraints’ on development.So in essence, the baby is programmed with certain’ operating principles’ that govern the way they listen to and try to make sense out of the flow of sounds coming at them ( Slobin, 1985b). This is another reason why very young babies already seem to understand that objects will move downwards unless it encounters an obstacle (Spelke, 1991). Notwithstanding, current theorists do not propose that these built-in response patterns are the whole factors; rather they are the starting point.What then develops is a result of experience filtered through these initial biases; however those biases do constrain the developmental pathways that are possible (Camp bell and Bickhard, 1992). Likewise, the interactive approach to an infant’s development in the first year also states that Taking all the above mentioned into account this essay is lead to the conclusion that each factor is parallel and relative to one another and that the balance of biology and social expectations is different in different areas of an infant’s development.Moreover, it is inevitable that both aspects of nature and nurture work in a collaborative manner alongside an organic system that operates together which is why even in those areas of development that appear to be the most clearly biologically determined can only occur if the child is growing in an environment that falls within the range of sufficient environments. After all, Albert Einstein did claim that ‘all that is valuable in human society depends upon the opportunity for development accorded the individual’ (1950).

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

Marketing Plan for Educational Institution/University

MIDDLE EAST UNIVERSITY FZE MARKETING STRATEGY AND PLAN Membership Marketing Strategy Purpose Group President MEU Chair:Mr. Janardhanan Pariyarath Chancellor: Vice Chancellor : Head of Student Services and Enrollment : Dean of Graduate Program: Dean of Post Graduate Program: HOD School of Nursing: HOD, School of Management: HOD School of Pharmacy : Admissions Director : Student/Staff Member – MEU: Chancellor’s Advisor: Marketing Team: Meeting: The Marketing Strategy Purpose Group MEU IS TO BE CONDUCTED ON†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ PurposeThe goals of the Marketing Strategy Purpose Group are to: ?Define target student populations for MEU ?Determine academic programs to be promoted ?Establish a marketing plan that focuses on increasing enrollment The Marketing Strategy Purpose Group is here submitting the (FOR APPROVAL) MARKETING PLA N GUIDING PRINCIPLES TO President Mr. Janardhanan Pariyarath to use as a guide EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Enrollment growth is of strategic importance to the future of the Middle East University. Marketing is an integral element of any recruitment activity.The Marketing Strategy Purpose Group (SPG) IS TO BE FORMED. All of the offices departments and staff have to pool the resources and funding in order to reach a broader audience of potential students. This partnership has been a positive step in achieving enrollment goals, and must continue in the future with the support of other departments across the campus. With the Marketing Plan Guiding Principles as a starting point, the Purpose Group began to determine actions that must be taken in order to improve enrollment and strengthen the overall image of the MEUUsing research from a number of sources, the Purpose Group IS TO IDENTIFY a pool of academic programs for promotion to potential students. A. HALO PROGRAMMES OF MEU ?Bachelor and post b achelor program under School of Nursing B. Core mix of programs of MEU ?Bachelor and post bachelor program under school of Management ? Bachelor and post bachelor program under school of Arts ?Bachelor and post bachelor program under school of pharmacy ? PHD Program C. Tie-up programs of MEU MBA, MCOM, MA, BBA, BCOM, BA, BSC – Calicut University. Target Audiences Target Audiences – Health care Industries, Hospitals, Medical Organizations ?Target Audiences – Traditional Fresher’s from schools for graduate Programs ?Target Audiences – Community College for post graduate program ? Target Audiences – Traditional Students (Employed expatriates) ? Target Audiences – Diverse Student Body Marketing activities among the above targeted audience include: †¢Research †¢Recruitment Geographic Range †¢Image Building/Promotion of the University as a Quality Institution †¢Web Site/E-recruiting †¢Promotion of Academic Programs and Halo Programs †¢Scholarship Development Enrollment Advisory Group †¢Internal Communication †¢Internal Marketing †¢Television and Radio †¢Media Relations †¢Visit Programs †¢Alumni †¢Community Involvement Based on demand from prospective students and growth potential and employment trends. Halo Programs were decided based on the positive effect of these quality programs on the overall image of the university. It was Decided that there will be overall promotion for academic programs, however research is also used to ascertain which marketing tools were the most effective for promotion to MEU’s primary target audiences.Finally, it is recommended that funding be increased for promotion, including funding for new research to be implemented that will assist in the marketing effort for MEU. In order to make the most effective marketing decisions, research will be needed. MARKETING PLAN GUIDING PRINCIPLES 2013-2014 A. Strengthen our connecti on to the MEU without diminishing our identity. B. Reinforce the university’s image as: a. An institution of academic excellence b. A comprehensive university with the intimacy of a small college. c. A campus where the student is the center of the universe Focus A. n our target population, which consists of five prospective groups: a)Target Audiences – Health care Industries, Hospitals, Medical organizations b)Target Audiences – Traditional Fresher’s from schools for graduate programs and Community College for post graduate program c)Target Audiences – Traditional Students (Employed expatriates) d)Target Audiences – Diverse Student Body C. Concentrate on promoting a small number of academic programs, selected on the basis of these considerations: a)Extraordinary quality and/or reputation: halo programs. b)High demand program c)Enrollment flexibility (e. g. online, evening and weekend courses) While capacity should be a factor in certain case s, the choice of programs should not be driven by considerations of excess or insufficient capacity. Some â€Å"prestige† programs may not have the capacity to absorb more students, but they create a â€Å"halo effect† that makes the university as a whole attractive to prospective students. At the same time, increased demand for a limited-capacity program would create the need to expand it. D. Package online, evening and weekend courses as â€Å"the flexible curriculum† and promote it to non-traditional and non-local students. FINDINGSMarketing Strategy Purpose Group has formed a set of recommendation to make satisfaction inventory analysis. Statistics are to be collected from several sources: 1. Visit to school 2. Parents and other family 3. Current students 4. College admissions staff 5. College web site 6. Catalogs, view books 7. Graduates of school 8. Friends 9. College guidebooks 10. Guidance counselor or teacher Television and radio advertising did not lea ve a lasting impression on The students but that broadcast advertising was very influential. The following elements and questions are going to be put forward or pointed out while approaching the prospects.If SPG is to check out these questions and should make answer by giving proper suggestion to the management, everything is concerned towards MEU Satisfaction Inventory analysis. ?Courses and majors ?Brochures about Academic programs ?Admission information/catalogs ?Approval and accreditation from the ministry of education or any other agency ? Faculty information about each course and programs offered ? Regularity of operational efficiency ?General feels and rapport about the university institution ? Cost breakdown ?Infrastructure and Housing information ?Campus life/student information ?Financial aid estimator Campus tour ?Extracurricular activities, tour, annual day, cultural, artistic programs. ?Library resources, Recreation facilities, Campus Safety MEU Satisfaction Inventory à ¢â‚¬ ¢The overall level of satisfaction at MEU is significantly higher. †¢MEU students place a high level of importance on academic quality of faculty, content of courses within their major, campus safety, parking and academic advising. †¢The least important things of MEU students pointed out are sports and leisure activities †¢MEU students continue to express concern that they cannot always easily get the classes they need to graduate on time. Basic element and reason behind lack of growth in tie up program is absence of teaching staff and the irregularity of operation or running the program also marketing efforts we did is not satisfactory everything is pointed towards the increase in labor turnover. Advertising Budgets of Comparable Universities It is difficult to accurately estimate the percentage of funds devoted to advertising and promotion at MEU Although University Relations is the department that has funding specifically allocated for advertising and promotio n, many units across the campus are spending funds from their budgets on marketing projects.Although the MEU Accounting Department is unable to provide an accurate total of money spent on advertising and promotion across the university due to inconsistent coding of expenditures across the units. There are several departments at those campuses engaged, in marketing activities, and there is not an accurate record of money spent on advertising and promotion. RECOMMENDATIONS Funding In order to adequately address the five target populations and to strengthen the image of the university, more funds must be allocated to marketing.Other public universities in close proximity to MEU are spending substantially more money on marketing and advertising. That assumption is based on the large amount of radio, television and direct mail advertising that is in the marketplace from these institutions. MEU’s message is getting lost quickly in a flood of advertising from such institutions as Wi sdom, Atlas, HAWK, Sharjah, City college Ajman, While some of these institutions are not direct competitors, nevertheless, potential students are choosing these schools instead of MEU. Research New research will be needed to track the results of the marketing effort MEU.It will be time to re-evaluate the impact of the latest marketing and promotion plans. It is difficult to measure the success or failure of any plan without research. Although it is expensive, research can also protect the institution from costly mistakes. Recruitment Geographic Range A geographical recruitment range has been defined to attract students. MEU students are primarily EXPATRIATES IN UAE. An area of growth for MEU is REQUIRED. By focusing marketing efforts TO SHARJAH & DUBAI, AJMAN, UMMUL QUAIN, This range would obviously change when student housing becomes a reality on the MEU campus.Image Building/Promotion of the University as a Quality Institution There must be a two-prong approach to marketing. Image building is the first step. This will be done through the creation of television, radio and print ads. Several ads need to be created to speak to each of the target populations. Some of the advertising should showcase more of our most notable/successful alumni. They are the best proof MEU has of people achieving their goals through education. This campaign can be expanded to include alumni with their favorite/most influential MEU professor.This will help potential students make the connection that one-on-one attention from faculty is an important quality, and a unique attribute of MEU. The second prong of image building is promotion. Promotion includes all public relations and media relations activities. The accomplishments of students and faculty must be highlighted for the public whenever possible. An important resource for image building is the recent AND PAST Student Satisfaction Inventory. By using the results of a survey by MEU students, this information can be sent to potent ial students, parents, alumni and others.It is a strong statement about the quality of the institution. Image building requires time. While MEU is already thought of as a quality university, this perception can be strengthened through promotional efforts that show the actions of the campus community. The goal is to be a top consideration for students pursuing higher education. Web Site/E-recruiting College web sites are a key factor in attracting students. MEU is nearing the completion of a re-designed, interactive web site that will serve potential and current students in a more professional manner.The new site will have an updated application form, a financial aid calculator, and an improved catalog component. Members of the University Relations staff will monitor all aspects of the web site weekly. The web site must also be promoted through an image campaign. By having positive experiences on the web site will help to build good word-of-mouth references for MEU. With a strong web site presence, more emphasis can be placed on recruitment techniques through the MEU web site. One recommendation from is to hold online Open houses for students.Other considerations include e-mail alerts about campus events and establishing a dialogue with admissions counselors and faculty. In the long run, a stronger web site and e-recruitment plan can add up to substantial cost savings by eliminating the need for printing and postage. a)Target Audiences – Health care Industries, Hospitals, Medical organizations TARGET AUDIENCE NURSING The Office of Graduate Programs has done outstanding work in the area of marketing. An extensive series of brochures promoting each of the programs has been produced. MORE than the potentiality of the market and the possibilities of the market is not considered.As nursing courses is becoming key element of the all programs of MEU. Still the MEU Not taking any scientific way for answering questions of targeted group which may come across on t he time of marketing operation PROSPECTED nursing target candidates are enrolling because of the need only. Highly demanded market prospects are coming to enrollment automatically, here â€Å"better suggestion and recommending habit of the market† is to be noted. MEU ALSO required taking much effort for strengthening the technical support from the Ministry of higher education UAE, Indian Nursing Counsel, and all authoritative bodiesMEU stands out from other universities by offering NURSING AND PHARMACY COURSES, MEU and allied institution hold good status providing these courses and program to targeted audience in hospital and medical organizations. Since there is such a large potential student population that is undecided about their course of study, we need to develop a marketing campaign that solely addresses the need to provide this group with options and assistance in plotting a course for their future. As a purpose group member observed, â€Å"We (MEU) have success with the ‘I Can’ts. ’ We need to empower them. † This ould be a unique marketing campaign by identifying the â€Å"undecideds† and offering them support and solutions as they find their way to a major. Marketing images and slogans, there was nearly universal response for images and ideas that provided the perception of â€Å"choice and possibility. † This is a theme that can be used to address traditional freshmen in marketing materials. b)Target Audiences Target Audiences – Traditional Fresher’s from schools in UAE for graduate programs and Community College for post graduate program Community college transfer students are an area of enrollment growth at MEU.The Office of Admissions is having great success with regularly scheduled â€Å"On the Spot Transfer Days† at MEU. There should proper marketing strategy for BBA, BCOM and OTHER DEGREE PROGRAM. Concerned other competitors MEU’s share in the market is very poor, mai nly because of lack proper marketing program and some time we fail to close the sale because of increasing turnover of marketing employee. And more than insufficiency of teaching staff also decreasing confident of the soul of MEU. c)Target Audiences– (Employed expatriates) Non-Traditional Students THE SCOPE AND POTENTIALITY OF THIS MARKET IS UNLIMITED.A marketing campaign can be developed and tailored to fit the market. By emphasizing faculty support and guidance, there should be separate marketing staff for offering the potential prospects, BBA, BCOM, MBA, and MCOM PROGRAM TO employed expatriates in UAE. Furthermore, evening and weekend classes are expanded; it will be a marketing opportunity to reach this group with a message of convenience. With courses being offered in almost every top career field, MEU can easily look appealing to these are that considers she/he an employee first and a student second.MEU should promote the services of the Career Development Center to thi s group. We should keep the potentiality of this market if once we cached the fruits we easily expand the target audience also to local emirates’ d)Target Audiences – Diverse Student Body More needs to be done to recruit a diverse student body to MEU. New initiatives by the Office of Admissions are seeking to reach out to students through the Flint churches. Contacts have been made with the Urban League of Flint to try to engage the Black Scholar Award recipients in the coming year as well.Throughout the year, MEU HAVE TO bring hundreds of middle school and high school students to campus to introduce them to campus life. These programs should be supported with strong promotion whenever possible. It is also recommended that Admissions, University Relations meet on a regular basis to find new ways to market and promote these programs. A new initiative to attract International Students to MEU is in the beginning stages. This will require a broader marketing reach that wil l also result in enhancing diversity and promoting enrollment growth.While there are a large number of international students attending community colleges in UAE, attracting these students to MEU could take on a regional approach. A brochure has been developed for international students, but that is not enough. Specific advertisements addressing their needs should be run in student newspapers as well as some magazines. Again, this will be an expensive venture. e)Other Target Audiences Although five target populations have been chosen, there are associated groups, who have great influence over these potential students that need to be marketed.Marketing initiative needs to be developed to recruit not just the potential students, but also these groups that are influencing factors in their decision to pursue a degree. Direct Mail While e-mail can help to save on printing and postage costs, it cannot be used alone, especially in efforts to attract non-traditional and graduate students. T he problem is many people change e-mail addresses often, or they do not check their e-mail on a regular basis. E-mail is simply not the most reliable form of communication. Direct mail continues to offer the most accurate response.It is also easy to track the results of direct mail, since most of the pieces created have a reply card. That information is entered into the University Relations Marketing database. This provides insight into which promotional pieces were well-received, and which had very little impact. Promotion of Academic Programs and Halo Programs The following areas were selected to become part of a pool from which programs will be selected for special promotion. Each of the programs chosen for advertising was selected based on three factors: 1. Interest from prospective students, 2.Growth potential and 3. Employment trends. Beyond marketing material development, detailed marketing plans need to be developed for each program. With the unique needs of each area, plans must be tailored to address specific attributes of each program, and the needs of various target audiences. Halo programs are an important component for helping to build the image of MEU as a quality academic institution. As with some academic programs, Halo Programs are being used to promote the university. Halo Programs are essential ingredients in mounting a successful public relations campaign.A good example of a Halo Program contributing to the image building process is nursing program. Management program is another outstanding halo program. By promoting such a high quality program, prospective students will perceive MEU as a leader in an important area of management, leadership and training, which then reflects positively on the entire University. Scholarship Development With rising tuition costs at public universities in UAE, it is recommended that scholarship development should be started to accelerate the pace to help potential students offset the price of pursuing a degre e.Furthermore, a concentrated effort should be made to develop more opportunities for emirates’ to train them for facing corporate environment. Enrollment Planning Committee The Enrollment Planning Committee shall be chaired by the Vice Chancellor for Student Services and Enrollment Management. The purpose of the Enrollment Planning Committee is to establish goals, make recommendations to the Chancellor, suggest strategies and assist in setting enrollment targets for various areas of the University.The EPC will engage in the discussion and provide support and a framework for the following: †¢An Admissions Plan which identifies strategies and enrollment targets †¢A clear marketing plan that is tied to established enrollment goals †¢The Enrollment Planning Committee is tied to the Purpose Group Reports (in their final and accepted forms) and the mission of the institution. The EPC shall meet on a quarterly basis to discuss, recommend and move forward enrollment r elated issues. Membership of this committee would include Internal CommunicationCommunicating the marketing initiatives to the campus community will be a major undertaking in the next few months. This can be done through a series of workshops, e-mails, and the formation of a Marketing Representatives Group. This group would be made up of designees from each unit on campus. The group would meet monthly to review marketing initiatives across units, and to coordinate efforts. Each representative would report back to their unit on the ongoing promotional efforts across the university. Internal Marketing For faculty and staff members, marketing is part of routine everyday business.Marketing is in the form of responding in helpful ways to phone calls or e-mails, assisting students with problems or questions, and being involved in the community. A continued emphasis must be placed on services to students at the institution. If a student or alum talks about their experience at MEU as positi ve, it is one of the most believable and affordable forms of advertising. Media Relations MEU has benefited in the last year from a strong relationship with the media. Mounting a media strategy campaign can help position the university as the ideal place to receive a liberal arts education in UAE.In an effort to take advantage of media attention, MEU should implement a media strategy including: †¢Identifying events/information that are appropriate for press conferences †¢Keep an updated list of all media contacts †¢Establish a contact with each department to find out newsworthy events †¢Work with local media in the creation of public service announcements that promote events on campus †¢Meet with the community relations leaders of media outlets to form partnerships that can provide free promotion of events †¢Maintain an up-to-date media resource guide for providing experts to various media outletsVisit Programs The most important recruiting strategy is the campus visit. With this in mind, the Office of University Relations along with the Office of Admissions and the Office of Graduate Programs is launching a new visitor’s center on campus. The primary purpose of the visitor’s center is to have a central-meeting point on campus for large groups. This room will be geared to hosting new visitors to the MEU campus. It will be a meeting point for tours, a room used for open houses and receptions, and general â€Å"starting point† for all visitors to the campus.These programs will be at times convenient for potential students and their families. Individuals who seek personalized attention will still be directed to the appropriate offices for service. Alumni However, they are still one of the most underutilized resources of the campus. In an effort to re-engage alumni, it is important to make them part of the public relations activities at MEU. Alumni should be formed and used for recruitment. They can be featured as success stories in publications or commercials. Community InvolvementMEU should lead the way in community involvement. By opening the campus to the community for events, new visitors will be brought to the campus. This can leave a lasting, favorable impression. The campus should continue to support and open the doors to such events as Destination Imagination. An effort should be made to attract other academic and community events to campus such as science fairs, competitions, health fairs, business expos and others. By this gesture of goodwill to area organizations and businesses, it will build positive momentum for MEU.

Monday, July 29, 2019

Evaluating the jury in the English legal system Essay

Evaluating the jury in the English legal system - Essay Example This paper attempts to comprehensively analyze the Jury present in the English legal system. It (paper) would examine the strengths and weaknesses of the jury, based on the current state of affairs. Also, the paper would go on to suggest the manner in which improvements can be brought about in this system (jury). Before proceeding further with the discussion on all the aspects mentioned in the previous paragraph, it would be of help in having a brief look at the jury, as it is seen in the English legal system. Jury Historically, the concept of jury has been there in the English legal system for nearly the past eight centuries. But it was only in the year 1670 that a jury having its distinct power and which is not dependent on the judge was formed. In the criminal cases, the jury comes to the decision whether or not the crime in question can be attributed to the defendant. Likewise, in the civil matters, the jury decides whether the claimant has come forward with proof strong enough t o strengthen their case. Here, the jury also arrives at a collective decision about the eligibility of the claimant to receive compensation. (1) As per the English Law, a person can become a part of the jury, only if they satisfy some conditions. Firstly, the age of the person should not be less than eighteen and more than seventy. To become part of a jury, it is imperative that the electoral roll has name of the person, and it is also required that they have been a resident of the United Kingdom for a minimum of five years, right from the time when they were thirteen. Here, it needs to be noted that persons who are directly related to the judiciary or the department of justice cannot be included in a jury. People who have developed any mental ailments are not eligible to get included in the jury, too. (1) At this point, it needs to be specifically mentioned that all the above are only the most vital points pertaining to jury of the English legal system. It has to be understood that there are several other laws and regulations governing the avenue (jury). As is the case with most of the systems, even the jury has both strengths and weaknesses, and the paper would now endeavor to have a look at them (strengths & weaknesses). Strengths There are several advantages of the jury system of the English Law, and a brief glance at some of the major ones (strengths) would be very much appropriate. Whenever a person accused of a crime is in a position that, despite being innocent the related legal aspects are very much against them, they can take the help of jury. And it is a matter of common sense that there are countless legal cases where, the points enumerated in the law books cannot be of help to the defendant in proving their innocence. (2) Likewise, the jury system can be conveniently rated as being a safeguard to the common man of the country, as it prevents the government from adopting an autocratic approach. To put it in other words, the jury makes sure that the government cannot imprison people solely for furthering its political objectives. A person can be jailed only when they are guilty of committing a crime, as per the British Law. The jury goes a long way in making sure that the citizens of the land are not victimized by the corrupt acts of judges. (2) One of the major advantages of the jury as per the English Law is that, it enables common people of the Kingdom to participate in the process of delivering justice. As a result of that, it can be safely concluded that, the eventual judgment is nothing but the common verdict of people pertaining to varying backgrounds. It (judgment) can in no way be the decision of just one official of the judiciary, courtesy the presence of jury system. In addition, the juries go a long way in making sure that the verdict delivered by them is free of ambiguity. They just need to decide whether the accused in question is innocent or guilty. (3) As mentioned earlier, the members of a jury come from diver se social backgrounds. Owing to

Sunday, July 28, 2019

Compare and contrast two people you know well Essay

Compare and contrast two people you know well - Essay Example One is my friend Mr. Pete and the other is my friend and cousin Prof. Jilmatt. Mr. Pete is an ardent social worker who attributes his generous nature to his family and multicultural society in which he was born and brought up. He spent his childhood with his loving parents, and friends of different ethnic groups. His parents belonged to a middle class White family who were staunch supporters of Catholic faith. In addition to religious insight, they both had good background of college education which added to Pete’s social concern. He is not only little lenient to moral failures but also exceedingly formal; and always maintained the dignity of his family throughout his life. Though people used to criticize him for his obsessional behavior, his sense of responsibility and discipline has had a strong influence on my life. Pete valued friendship and always maintained good social contact. He is well aware of the problems of common people and has clear opinion on social issues. He is an excellent speaker who also takes part in political campaigns. Although he was born to catholic parents, he actively participated in social issues irrespective of their ethnic variance. However, the most unfortunate thing about him is that he is half blind who could never read anything since his childhood. However, people who are only very close to him could identify this deformity; and obviously his will power enabled him to manage this. All his social contacts have helped him to build up a successful business based on agricultural products and equipments. Prof. Jilmatt is an aberrant character who could speak and write more than seven languages fluently. He is famous (notorious?) for his vociferous nature and careless life style. Common people could hardly understand the real versatile. He is little consistent with his career as a professor and is often catapulted from

Saturday, July 27, 2019

Group Analysis Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Group Analysis - Essay Example 2. I (Rose) wrote the literature review, explained the theoretical and historic perspectives about the problem, determined gaps in the existing body of literature and reiterated the purpose of study. 3. Yusuf wrote the methodology section along with the research design and the various procedures that were employed for collecting the data. He also characterized the subjects, did sample designing, described the instrumentation used and wrote the procedures of data analysis. 4. Anita, the fourth member of our team drew the conclusions of the research, presented factual information, and discussed the statistical and practical significance of research with the help of charts and tables. 5. Colleen, the fifth member of our team wrote the discussion section. In this section, Colleen summarized the conclusions and offered explanation for the unexpected findings of the research. She also stated the research’s limitations and suggested pattern for further research in the very subject. 6 . Jean edited the whole report and made it sound like it was all the product of one mind. The project we completed can be divided into four basic phases, namely brainstorming, review of primary and secondary sources, data collection and analysis, and report writing. The first phase was the most critical one, though it consumed the least time. When a team has to execute a project, the most important thing is to have things done with mutual consensus. We conducted a skill demonstration session in the very first meeting in which each one of us told what he/she felt comfortable with doing in the project. This was followed by a voting session. Kayla and Anita both were willing to complete the conclusion section of the paper, but Anita won more votes than Kayla, so Kayla had to write the introductory portion instead. The tasks discussed in the list above were assigned to the respective team members in the very session. Once everybody was clear about what he/she would be doing in the proje ct, chances of conflicts were minimized. In the brainstorming phase, everyone thought how he/she would go about doing his/her part of the work. Then we conducted literature review to identify gaps in the literature and see how people have done things in the past. Literature review was followed by the data collection and analysis phase. This was the most time consuming and tiresome part of the job. Going out in the field and making others spare some time and fill the surveys for matter, they have no concern with is a tough job! Finally, the report writing phase came. Although it was no less tiresome than the data collection and analysis phase, yet things were quite manageable. We were able to adjust the report writing into our routinely activities. We finished the work one day before the deadline and partied all day long to celebrate the completion of task. In my personal opinion, group process is an excellent way of doing a project because it offers several advantages as compared to individual work. First, the tension of work is released as friends get together all the time for work. Normally, in an individual setting, one tends to waste time as there often is no impulse for speeding up. In a group process, when two or three friends sit together and work, the fourth and fifth naturally feel obliged to join them in the work. This ensures that everyone participates in the work and the work is completed sooner. Secondly, team mates benefit from one another’

Friday, July 26, 2019


INFORMATION RETRIEVAL THROUGH MULTI AGENT SYSTEM WITH DATA MINING - Research Paper Example a practically implemented research model for the information retrieval using Multi-Agent System with Data Mining technique in a Cloud Computing environment. The paper will undertake a review of the existing literature available on this arena and develop an empirical model showing real time data flow through MAS with data mining after retrieval of meaningful information from data warehouse present in a cloud computing environment. In the end, paper will provide recommendations for the organizations for effective implementation and use. Cloud Computing is a general term that refers to anything that â€Å"involves delivering hosted services over the Internet. Broadly it is characterized into three categories, namely: Software-as-a-Service (SaaS), Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) and Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS)† (‘CloudComputing’, 2007). In the present age and knowledge economy, discovering new knowledge and retrieving information from a data center from a cloud environment is a difficult aspect. The concept of cloud computing does not provide facilities for the knowledge discovery and information retrieval. Furthermore, it is required that the so-called knowledge discovery should be in harmony with the structure, schema and architecture of that knowledge. The emerging knowledge cloud is considered insufficient to retrieve information effectively and thus, Chang, Yang and Luo (2011) undertook a study to propose "an ontology-based agent generation framework for information retrieval in a flexible, transparent and easy way on cloud environment† (p.1135). They proposed a framework for information retrieval in which the user will submit "a flat-test based† request to retrieve â€Å"information on a cloud environment†, the request will be â€Å"deduced by a Reasoning Agent automatically that is accord ing to a predefined ontology and a reasoning rule and then translated to a Mobile Information Retrieving Agent Description File (MIRADF) that is formed in a proposed

Leading Learning Organization Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Leading Learning Organization - Essay Example tions constitute the some of the active participants suffering from the leadership weaknesses both locally and globally (Razik, Swanson & Razik, 2010). The flat world presents several opportunities for the leadership to incorporate in establishing an effective program for managing the workers. The learning organizations are not exceptional, as they apply the flat world dynamics accordingly. These continued arguments constitute the contrast and comparison of the local and global challenges that impair the education and education leadership. The comprehensive teacher leadership institutes the process in which the transformation culture for leadership in the learning industry is still key factor. Included in the identification of the iconic images of the past teacher leadership roles is that the learning organization is moving towards understanding the compelling cases of the teacher to leadership skill, and basing on the current developments (Razik, Swanson & Razik, 2010). The continued effort to institute scaring developments in the teacher to patient relation focuses on the following core current conditions that continue to evolve accordingly. Further, the changing world of managing organizations reflects that the course of proposing and establishing top-down change is becoming less profession. The processes of adopting change constitute the leadership, which is less intense ad involved to develop a structure for the relations that teacher may hold. Further, the question of the conditional stereotyping from the old fo lks in the industry continues to institute challenging developments in the management of the learning organizations. The leadership, learning and procedures of implementing and managing change institute the position for establishing a united course for developing the education setting to succeed in the local conceptualization of the learning institutions (Razik, Swanson & Razik, 2010). Notably, the face of the country is changing, and so is the

Thursday, July 25, 2019

Review of Iraq for Sale Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Review of Iraq for Sale - Essay Example After that the plot revolves around how the poorly supervised private interrogators and untrained translators were severely engaged in the prisoner abuse case in Abu Ghraib. The film focuses on the cost of the loss of the traditional military jobs. From any kind of reconstruction jobs to troop and support, from police training to surveillance-everything was controlled by private contractors. Even the film also focuses that a highest part of the government allows such contractors to get the reward with sole-source contract without facing any competition in bidding. The stock of the companies only double and redouble as a result truckers were sent to the battle zone without military escorts. Just to make cost cutting they put untrained people to interrogate at Abu Ghraib. The focus of the film is how such private contractors over bill US government while provided substantial work. They also endanger lives of American soldiers and private citizen altogether. The film also reveals ex-mil itary and ex-government officials to help such contractors in a very unethical manner. The dark background of the reconstruction process of Iraq is shown through the lives of soldier, truck drivers, widows and children.

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

Police administration Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Police administration - Essay Example In addition, the paper explores whether the course has helped me, in preparing to face the modern-day challenges facing the police. The main challenges facing the police force include governance. For a long time, the tripartite structure of the force that encompasses a home office, chief constable and police authority is largely non-operational. The structure is characterized by gross confusion over the roles that different policing agents should play; there is a replication of roles and responsibilities. Therefore, there is a need to address the inconsistencies in the governance of the force (VanHulle, 2011). For instance, the bureaucratic nature of the current police structure needs to be addressed with an aim of effective utility of the potential in the police force. There is also an issue with the skills and the expertise held by the different departments, which needs to be explored, and where possible consolidated in order to ensure the achievement of maximum value from the avai lable personnel (VanHulle, 2011). The satisfaction expected in the area of police governance includes coherence of command, which eliminates the availability of conflicts in orders and commands. Furthermore, satisfaction in this area will include the delivery of services in a way that ensures that confusion levels are low (VanHulle, 2011). Through the adoption of an effective police administration, there will be the avoidance of replication of roles and responsibilities. In effect, this establishes a reward system that recognizes the roles of all officers regardless of their rank. There is a challenge of cost cuts in instances where the police force is under pressure to show that they are operating in a financially efficient manner (COPS, 2011). One possible solution, in this case, would be investing in a common procurement and a common service administration model. Some of the cuts that may help in realizing this include the sharing of resources and using smarter volume purchasing. For instance, instead of the 43 forces having 43 HR centers, they could invest in a central HR administration (COPS, 2011). Price cuts could also be realized in the areas of procuring services and equipment as central procuring could reduce the overall cost of policing, by millions. The satisfaction expected from this challenging area is that the operations of the police force should be managed and administered in a professional manner. Furthermore, the deployment of funds and roles should be based on the strategic employment of resources – both human and financial (COPS 2011). There is a challenge that the police are expected to depict a reduction in crime, which could be realized through increasing the detection of crime at all areas of coverage. The changing nature of crimes, where new models and styles of crimes replace the existing ones, further escalates this problem. In effect, this calls for newer models to detect crime and realize the overall objective of crime redu ction (PERF, 2012). For instance, there is a need to improve stitching on instances where criminal activities of small or large magnitude can be investigated with the criminals subsequently subjected to penal action (PERF, 2012). The satisfaction expected in this area is that the police should remain updated on new patterns and the technologies used by criminals. For example, police investigations should be able to expose information –

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

Work-Related Communication Problem in Corporate Communication Essay

Work-Related Communication Problem in Corporate Communication - Essay Example Signals of this prolific growth have been evident since 2003, which has resulted in a constant drive by retailers to introduce new delivery mechanisms to broaden customer reach (Diamond and Pinter, 2004). As such, this has seen a shifting approach in multi-channel retail strategy from bricks and mortar to multi-level formats including home shopping and mobile commerce (Levy and Weitz, 2008). With increasing and improving technology, various steps are taken for the improvement of communication because businesses run on the basis of good communication skills. For understanding the problems of communication, individual performance is very important to understand. Various assessment tools and theories-based on human nature provide perspectives in understanding individual performance in the workplace. To this end, the consideration of the social exchange theory and social penetration theory highlight the underlying motivation in social relationships. It is further submitted in the corporate context that a comprehensive understanding of the social exchange theory and social penetration theory are key organizational development going forward. The corporate communication is very significant for the development and establishment of businesses all over the world. The communication problems such as work-related communication problems are very crucial as they affect the organization negatively if handled carelessly. Leading sociologist George Caspar Homans is usually hailed as the central consolidator of Social Exchange Theory works in his work â€Å"Social Behaviour as Exchange† (1958). In general terms, the social exchange theory posits that social change and stability is a process of negotiated exchanges between parties (Homans, 1958).  

Monday, July 22, 2019

Life of Pi and Religion Essay Example for Free

Life of Pi and Religion Essay The Grapes of Wrath has many Religious parallels to the bible. The characters are paralleled with people from the bible, some easily recognizable. Also the Grapes of Wrath is during the Great Depression which can be an allusion to the horrible treatments and suffering times the Israelist people had to deal with reflects to this time period. The plot of John Steinbeck’s novel, The Grapes of Wrath, can easily be related to many biblical references as well as it could be applied to the daily struggles of the lives of Christians. Two particular portions of this novel stick out more than any other. Those are the characters of Jim Casey and Pa Joad. Jim Casey reminds me of Moses from the bible because in the bible Moses lead thousands of people out of harsh treatments and slavery and led them to the promises land Canon. Where Steinbeck could be referring the Joad family as the people who followed Moses and Jim is viewed as Moses who tries and lead them to a safe place where they won’t suffer anymore. Throughout The Grapes of Wrath, religious symbols crop up, explaining the significance of the section. One use of symbolism is that when on the road to California, Tom runs in to a snake. Already used in the novel is the fact that to the Joads, California represents a place of great wealth, freedom, and prosperity. It is a Garden of Eden, so to speak. The Garden of Eden had a serpent who brought the Wrath of God upon Adam and Eve. The serpent gave them with the forbidden fruit. California is forbidden to outsiders and migrants. No Okies allowed. The snake represents the Eden Serpent and its betrayal to Adam and Eve. California will betray the Joads.

History of Psychology as a Scientific Discipline

History of Psychology as a Scientific Discipline DEVELOPMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY The commencement of the history of psychology is difficult to determine, essentially for the reason that it is hard to found accurately what psychology is. Instead, we can simply point that psychology is the study of the mind and its functions particularly those disturbing comportment in a given context.[SD1] One way to think about the olden times of psychology is to categorize the different theorists and theories into â€Å"sections† (or schools of thought). Each section is a manner of thinking about human mind and actions that actually dominated the field for a certain epoch until a new manner of considering psychology started to control the field.[SD2] The Beginnings of Psychology The most primitive origins of psychology are, predictably, found in the primeval cultures of Greece, Egypt, China and India. While modern psychology reveals the discipline’s rich and diverse history, the roots of psychology fluctuate considerably from present conceptions of the field. From its initial beginnings, psychology has been confronted with several questions. The initial interrogation of how to describe psychology help out to establish it as a science distinct from physiology and philosophy. Further questions that psychologists have faced all through history comprise: Is psychology truly a science? Should psychology emphasis on visible behaviors, or on inner cerebral processes? What subjects and problems should psychology be dealing with? What scientific methods should be used to study psychology?[SD3] Psychology itself had a long history, as a topic within the fields of philosophy and physiology. The initial psychological fundamentals are deep-rooted in philosophy. While the great philosophical dissimilarity between mind and body in western believed can be originated to the Greeks, it is to the powerful work of Renà © Descartes, French mathematics, philosopher and psychologist that we owe the concept of dualism that stated that the mind and the body were two dissimilar things that interrelate to create the human experience. Today psychology is still related with several of the fundamental philosophical enquiries that thinkers were considering many years ago such as the correlative contributions of nature vs. nurture. Early philosophers have recourse to techniques such as observation and judgment while modern psychologists made use of scientific ways to investigate and derive conclusions about human notion and actions. Early physiology enquiry on the mind and actions had an outstanding influence on psychology, essentially giving rise to the application of scientific methods to the study of human mind and behavior. [SD4] Psychology emerges as a separate discipline. Psychology took so long to emanate as a research-based field because it required time to mingle. Interpreting behavior, thoughts and emotions is challenging, which may possibly demonstrate why it was basically disregarded between ancient Greek times and the 16th century. Wundtian Psychology and Structuralism Psychology as a research-based subject began to spring in the 1800’s. Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) is recognized with founding the first psychology laboratory in Leipzig, Germany in 1879.Generally reckoned as the father of psychology, we[SD5] might credit the founding to Wundt in 1874 when he composed his first textbook issued as â€Å"Principles of Physiological Psychology†. Wundt actually made use of scientific methodologies especially his primary method of research which was â€Å"introspection†. Wundt was concerned in studying the mind and conscious involvement. He maintained the point that the investigation of mindful thoughts would be the key to know the mind. His method to the enquiry of the mind was revolutionary in that it was founded on methodical and rigorous reflection, setting the groundwork for modern psychological research.†.Introspection was a practice used by investigators to term and examine their personal internal thoughts and emotions throughout a research experience Introspection subsisted for a few times and is still used today in present neuroscience study; nevertheless many scientists slate the use of introspection for its lack of experimental approach and fairness. Structuralism Becomes Psychology’s First School of Thought Structuralism emerged from Wundts concepts. Edward B. Titchener, an English instructor who was an apprentice under Wundt’s management, elaborated upon Wundts ideas and used them to establish the theory of structuralism, which aim to comprehend the mind as the â€Å"sum of varying underlying parts†. The ultimate objective was to understand the brainpower. He assumed that if the rudimentary constituents of the mind could be demarcated and classified, then the structure of mental processes and higher thinking could be resoluted. Using Wundt’s primary method that is introspection, however with strict guidelines, Titchener’s volunteers would try to crack down their responses and reactions to the most root feelings and discernments. Structuralism was criticized because its subject of scrutiny—the conscious experience—was not simply studied with skillful experimentation. Its reliance on introspection, despite Titcheners strict rules, was disapproved for its deficiency in authenticity. Judges claimed that self-reflection is not viable, and that introspection can provide diverse results depending on the subject. Even though the quest of structuralism mostly died with Titchener (1867-1927), he supplied a solid system of psychology which would well along be the matter and center of major alterations in psychology, resulting in a substitute approach to psychology: functionalism. Functionalism is of great significance to the history of American psychology, for the reason that it is a system of psychology that is exclusively American. Wundtian psychology and structuralism one and the other have their origins in Germany, but functionalism is an American product. The Functionalism of William James American psychologist William James (1842-1910) emerges[SD6] in the mid- to late-1800s.Functionalism appeared as a response to the structuralism and was greatly influenced by the work of William James and the evolution theory of Charles Darwin. James approach to psychology was barely concentrated upon the structure of the mind, and more concerned with scrutinizing the manner in which the mind adjusts to altering situations and atmospheres. Functionalism also put emphasis on individual dissimilarities, which had a serious influence on educational sector. The changeover from structuralism to functionalism reveals the rapidly fluctuating times in psychology. In just a period of twenty years (1880-1900), the main principal point of psychology moved from Germany to America. Gestalt’s Psychology While Wundt and James were investigating with introspection, another group of psychologists were elucidating human inner thoughts and actions in a considerably altered way. Gestalt psychology is founded upon the concept that we encounter life situations as combined wholes Gestalt psychologist like Max Wertheimer (1880–1943) attempted to survey a person’s whole experience for the reason that the way we experience the world is further than just an amassing of several perceptual involvements. Like the introspective principles, usually than the influence to particular forms of therapy and the investigation of perception, Gestalt psychology has rather slight influence on present psychology. Behaviorism[SD7] Behaviorism came to be a prevailing school of thought during the 1950s and had its initial start with the work of a Russian physiologist named Ivan Pavlov. This approach set up against functionalists concepts attempted to make psychology as a more scientific field by centering only on observable behavior. It was also centered upon the work of thinkers such as: John B. Watson and B.F. Skinner. John B. Watson strictly proclaimed war by founding a completely new method to psychology namely behaviorism. Watson is usually considered as the father of behaviorism:Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, and my own specified world to bring them up in and Ill guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select doctor, lawyer, artist, merchant-chief and, yes, even beggar-man and thief, regardless of his talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities, vocations, and race of his ancestors.John Watson,Behaviorism, 1930. The term behaviorism is related to the school of psychology established by John B. Watson centered on the conviction that actions can be measured, trained, and altered. Behaviorism was recognized with the publication of Watsons model paper Psychology as the Behaviorist Views It (1913).Another behaviorist, B. F. Skinner (1904–1990), extended the rudimentary concepts of behaviorism to comprise the idea of reinforcement—environmental incitements that either boost or discourage some reactions. Skinner’s intellectual inspiration persisted for decades. Despite the fact that behaviorism in time eradicated its hold on psychology, the elementary ideologies of behavioral psychology are still far and wide in use today. Psychoanalysis[SD8] An Austrian physician so-called Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) reformed the face of psychology in a revolutionary way, suggesting a theory of personality that accentuated the significance of the unconscious mind. The psychoanalytic theory suggested by Sigmund Freud had an incredible influence on 20th-century beliefs, winning over the mental health sector as well as other fields comprising art, literature and popular culture. Freud assumed that the human awareness consisted of three features: the id, the ego, and the superego. A lot of Freuds interpretations and theories were founded on clinical problems and case studies rather than empirical, scientific researches. Freud maintained the fact that to understand human thoughts and actions correctly, we must enquire the unconscious mind over and done with dream analysis, word link, and other psychoanalytic treatment methods. This Austrian physician stated that the unconscious was that section of the human mind that consist of instincts, actions, and needs that we actually ignored of but on the other hand affect our conduct. However, Freuds theories altered in what way we reason about the human thoughts and actions and his contribution to psychology and culture is incontestable. Yet, in the beginnings of 1900s in the United States, Freud’s ideologies were dominated by another concept to understanding behavior called behaviorism. Cognitive Psychology[SD9] Cognitive psychology is the school of thought that investigates mental processes comprising how people think, perceive, remember and learn. This section of psychology is linked to other field comprising neuroscience, philosophy and linguistics. This approach began to arise during the 1950s. One of the utmost influential theories from this school of thought was the phases of cognitive development theory suggested by Jean Piaget.Research developed to matters such as memory, problem solving, and decision making. Cognitive psychology is not up till now a system of psychology, but it is presumably the most prevalent approach in experimental psychology today Humanistic psychology Dissatisfaction with behaviorism and the social turmoil of the 1960s result[SD10] in humanistic psychology. Humanistic psychology was concentrated on each persons capacity and underlined the significance of development and self-realization. The major conviction of humanistic psychology is that individuals’ are naturally good and that cerebral and communal difficulties are caused from deviances from this natural inclination.[SD11] Referencing List Oren Lahav. Origins of psychology. Available: Last accessed 27 January 2015. Kendra cherry. TheOriginsofPsychology.Available: Last accessed 27 January 2015. History of Psychology. Last accessed 27 January 2015. Kendra cherry.The Influence of Philosophy and Physiology. Available: Last accessed 27 January 2015. Saul McLeod. (2008). Psychology as a Science. Available: Last accessed 27 January 2015. â€Å"Early Frameworks: Structuralism and Functionalism.† (20 Sep 2014). Boundless Psychology. Available: Last accessed 28 January 2015. History of Psychology. Available: Last accessed 27 January 2015. From R. Eric Landrum. Brief History of Psychology. Available: Department of Psychology. Boise State University. Last accessed 28 January 2015. (Kendra cherry.Major Schools of Thought in Psychology 7 of the Major Schools of Thought inPsychology.Available: Last accessed 28 January 2015. Kendra cherry.The Rise of Behaviorism. Available: accessed 28 January 2015 Kendra cherry.What Is Behaviorism? Available: accessed 28 January 2015 Kendra cherry .Psychoanalysis.Available: Last accessed 28 January 2015 Kendra cherry. What is Psychoanalysis.Available: Last accessed 29 January 2015 Kendra cherry. What is Humanistic Psychoanalysis? Available: Last accessed 29 January 2015 1 [SD1]Unclear [SD2]Good introduction. [SD3]/do not list questions [SD4]Could have started with this paragraph and not give so many details about greeks and Descartes. [SD5]writing should be impersonal. [SD6]Past tense [SD7]Missing transition about why behaviorism came about [SD8]Missing transition from behaviorism to psychoanlalysis. Behaviorism comes after psychodynamic approach. [SD9]Missing transition about how the cognitive school of thought came about. [SD10]Past tense. [SD11]Satisfactory attempt. Intext references missing though and should have used materials from books and journal articles and not only from websites.

Sunday, July 21, 2019

How Global Is The Global Media?

How Global Is The Global Media? With the emergence of globalization, it has enhanced digital communications between suppliers and consumers and flourished the commercial media market. However, are these media systems developing a truly global market? Are they communicating with the public in a truly global perspective versus transnational, national, regional and local? (Martin, 1988, pp 40) In the twentieth century, global media simply means technology/digital media, the internet is known as our global village where information and communications can reach thousands homes in spite of geographical and cultural distances. Being global means getting internationally united and integrated through interchanging of world views. During the 1960s and 1970s, globalization primarily refers to the evolvement of Americanization, firms that are originally based in the United States started moving across the globe in a rapid pace. (McChesney, 2001) Since the United States market is already well-developed and only seeking for incremental expansion, these dominant firms aim to invest in the foreign markets so as to strengthen their competitiveness amongst other powerful national corporations. (McChesney, 2001) Unsurprisingly, these American firms have become the dominant players in the commercial media market after the 1990s, the concentration of specific media industries such as Television networks, Music industries, Film Makings, Books and Magazines publishing, are gradually increasing since dominant parent companies began to set up subsidiaries across the globe. In the twenty-first century, the global media market is basically dominated by seven multinational corporations which are based in America: Disney, AOL Time Warner, Sony, News Corporation, Viacom, Vivendi and Bertelsmann. (McChesney, 2001) And according to McChesneys findings (2001), these companies own the major U.S. film studios, one of the U.S. television networks, most of TV channels in U.S. and worldwide, they even control up to 85% of the global music market. By all accounts, does a truly global media market include such a high level of media concentration? Scholars on globalization and cultural equality argued that the American dominance in the media industries has made it difficult for other developing countries to produce and distribute their own form of cultural media products and has limited the degree of cultural exchange between global countries. On the other hand, Morley (1996, pp37) believes that Americanization, also refers to media/ cultural imperialism, is just the side effect or process of globalization. He explains that in long run, the U.S. is striving to emerge a set of values and beliefs which largely shares amongst all nations through media. Media plays a significant role in spreading the word of mouth and is redefining the way the global communicates; (Morley, 1996, pp54) The flow of media communications can be multilayered, in this case, the U.S. is just taking the lead, media is going to wide spread across the globe layer by layer (local, regional, nation, transnational, multinational and global). Cultural media Imperialism A global media system supposed to be influential and powerful enough to mediate nations (organizations, groups and individuals) to communicate their differences and similarities through cultural exchange. However, Straubhaar (1991) has identified several key problems regarding the media flow in the 1970s: media and cultural imperialism. The spread of commercial media was seen to have constrained the distribution of media and its usage to a purely national basis. The media was perceived to be a one way flow of television and news from western countries like United States and France and the big four news agencies (Associated Press, United Press International, Agence France Presse and Reuters) respectively, to the rest of the world. (Straubhaar, 1991) Straubhaars concept of asymmetrical interdependence (1991) is able to explain the imbalanced set of relationships, where the original media flow of the world displays first world countries at the top, and third world at the bottom. It is very ironic to say that media/cultural imperialism is one of the stages to go through in the journey to media globalization. McChesney points out that the contemporary American culture is the most powerful and influential in history. The unequal distributions of income, the lack of industrial infrastructure, lack of government support and media resources in the third world countries (i.e. India and parts of Africa) not only have constrained them from creating their own media channels, it has also increased their dependency on the U.S for capital, technology and most media products. (2001) In the notion of global media, it encourages opening up to the world, sharing and exchanging instead of protecting your own culture; however, the dominant media coverage and financial and technologically lagging behind of the third world have even caused small countries to lose their cultural identity. (Morley, 2006, pp34) Living in a capitalist community, it is understandable for companies to be profit oriented; profits became the motor force to drive the expansion of U.S. media into international sales and investment. Nonetheless, according to Strabhaars findings, audiences preference is as well considered to be a key factor in producing socially determined television readings. (1991) For instance, the massive distribution (exports) of American global films has successfully promoted the U.S. culture and spread knowledge about the Americans to the world. Furthermore, multinational audiences choice of reading has been assimilated to the American style/layout/format media productions (especially films and dramas). (Martin, 1988, pp52) The international success of the U.S. media industries has flourished the media market in other European countries such as Britain, North American, Mexico etc. (Martin, 1988, pp 54) Matter fact that the American influence is giving way to the development of media industries in the third world. These firms are learning to take the first world models, and adapting it to their native settings such as developing non main stream media which is more economical. (Straubhaar, 1991) Accordingly, in less than ten years after the Americanization period, Brazil already owned its national radio station and theatre; India got its own community television channel; Egypt started its national media industry by introducing a new cinema and opera theatre. (Martin, 1988, pp 52) Cultural proximity and hybridisation Under the U.S. influence, media industries in Brazil tend to have adapted the American form of commercial media and cultural industry. Telenovela has been considered a distinct cultural industry product of Brazil since 1970s. (Straubhaar, 1991) Morley said that it is often being categorized as American style soap operas since it is translated from soap operas to Latin American by some Brazilian Americans. The Rich Also Cry is the first telenovela that went global which is exported to China, Russia, France, Malaysia, Japan and the U.S. etc. (2006 pp 43) The nature of cultural linguistic markets helps develop cultural proximity within regions more than the mass imported U.S. programs. (Movius, 2010) Telenovela helps spread sociocultural messages worldwide. Small communities like the Hispanic people who share similar cultural norms with the Americans and Brazilians, are attracted to watch Brazils telenovela even some of them are living in east Asian countries. (Movius, 2010) Straubhaar argues that even though some countries are sharing a similar culture or a common language, there are many media products, especially television programs being locally transplanted before they enter a local market; (1991) It is also very less likely to see pure imported media programs since the local audience usually prefer programs that are most proximate to them in terms of format, style, culture, tradition, custom and dialect. (Movius, 2010) Take for example, the Disney cartoon movie will be translated to Chinese when it enters the Chinese film industry, all the American slangs and jokes will not be presented in the same way or meaning since they cannot make any sense in Chinese. Regardless of the movies origin, viewers will interpret tem according to their cultural context and portrait it in their own urban lifestyle. (Morley, 2006, pp 35) To a certain extent, it is nearly impossible to assimilate worldwide cultures to one or else small nations will lose the unique aspects of their home, culture and environment. (Straubhaar, 1991) The global media means to enhance the exchange of cultural ideas, knowledge and values instead of overtaking others cultural image and identity. The success of Brazilian telenovela is considered as a combination of genre traditions and exchange of cultures between nations through media production. With reference to Martin (1988, pp 51), contraflow describes how the cultures interact and transform, without losing their own genres. Also, the exportation of telenovela Ugly Betty to the U.S. from Colombia is seen to be a great example of contraflow media, it proves that there is no longer a one way flow of media from the America. (McChesney, 2001) Initially, it represents a dependency upon the first world but succeeds in moving into a greater, but still asymmetrical interdependency. (McChesney, 2001) Cultural difference is no longer a communication barrier in the globalized world. The global media has broaden audiences social horizon as various media bring them new and compelling cultural knowledge. Mass media like radio, cinema and television has reconsolidated social groupings (closed cosmopolitan groups) and renewed cultural forms. (Movius, 2010) Apart of the Hollywood products from U.S., new layers of global production and access have emerged such as the worldwide flow of telenovela, Japanese anime and manga, Chinese Kung Fu films and Bollywood films. (Movius, 2010) It is not surprised that globalization is often associated with Americanization; the U.S. has indeed written the grammar of television and film production. Yet, starting from the 1990s, the global power has shifted to Asia. (Movius, 2010) Recently, the U.S. and Chinese film industries announced that they are going to set up a Hollywood co-production film studio based in Tianjin, China. (Pulver, 2012) At such, China would be able to nurture opportunities for cross cultural creativity and business investment in the future. This project also allows China to offer its rich heritage culture to the world. Asian countries seem to be turning the original imperialistic U.S. chain on its head in the 2010s, (McChesney, 2001) South Korea is a prime example of a turn of influential media flow and showing the crucial role of advancing technology. The KPOP (Korean music) culture favours a massive number of foreign listeners; Record companies encourage songs that combined Korean lyrics with rapped breaks and slogan-scaled English choruses, some of them even produce Japanese or Chinese song albums to attract the foreign market. In regard of the advance technology, the internet cannot be neglected as it is the most powerful and influential media that bridge communications amongst the global audience. It is known as the global village, the motor force that drives all nations together at once regardless of time and place. (Martin, 1988, pp 45) Social media like YouTube, Facebook, Twitter, MySpace takes on the job of the mass media to globalize peoples identity but in a larger degree, through an interpersonal space. These new global media players continue to grow which have also strengthen social relationships as well as increased accessibility to global information. (Movius, 2010) However, identities and media relations are still multi-layered with cultural geographical elements (McChesney, 2001) According to Straubhaar (1991), there are tendencies that the communication of media networks will be effected by cultural media traditions and regulatory systems. For instance, Facebook is censored in China due to some political reasons. At the same time, the Chinese media has developed their own social networking sites that function like Facebook: Weibo and RENN. This act has again challenged the notion of global media, showing that there are still countries which want to protect their domestic media and cultural industries to some point. (Straubhaar, 1991) As a conclusion, there is an initial change in the world media relations from dependence to relative interdependence. Though the United States still make up a high percentage of media ownership worldwide, other national media industries are consolidating an independent position in the world media market. (McChesney, 2001) The question to media imperialism and power inequality within the global media system is still very complex due to some political, social, cultural and economic implications. The global media is trying to deliver the same message worldwide, however, there are others forces and causes influencing such process.

Saturday, July 20, 2019

The Fall of Man :: essays research papers

Alienation: The Fall of Man through the Breaking of Moral Law Is it possible to attain or remain in a state of true happiness when you break a moral law? To many of us, road signs have been handed down through the generations and are posted clearly as the 10 Commandments delivered to us through Moses. These commandments are generally viewed as religious moral laws, but can they be viewed also as natural laws of morality for all to heed regardless of religious belief? Consider the chaos if we inverted their intended meaning, remove the word ‘not’, and apply ‘Thou Shall Kill’ or ‘Thou Shall Commit Adultery’, as new commandments. Would these new commandments conflict with natural laws of morality? The story by Andre Dubus, â€Å"Killings†, and Anton Chekhov, â€Å"The Lady with the Pet Dog†, show alienation as a horrible consequence we can suffer when a moral law is broken. In the story, â€Å"Killings†, Dubus reveals in detail, the alienation Matt and Ruth experience after Matt executes the revenge murder. In Chekhov’s story of â€Å"The Lady with the Pet Dog†, Anna and her lover, Dmitri, become familiar with alienation after they begin their extra-marital affair. The stories are completely different, however, the authors carefully guide us on a journey into brokenness and deep sadness, only to witness a deeper tragedy of self-imposed imprisonment: Alienation. Alienation caused by grave wrongdoing. Dubus and Chekhov give us insight to the effects of breaking a moral law by directly showing us how we can be impacted when we commit murder or commit adultery. Breaking moral law is shown to alienate us in ways we may not straightforwardly anticipate. In both stories, the protagonists are alienated from any notion of a supreme being. This is shown extensively through setting, tone, and action showing how the protagonist hide from their surroundings, especially from the events that are occurring or are about to occur. In â€Å"Killings†, Matt’s alienation from a supreme being begins within him at the time he begins to carry a gun, a gun that he must conceal, else face possible prison time. Matt’s friend Willis points this out when he asks, â€Å"You got a permit?†, when Matt responds that he doesn’t, then Willis seems to warn Matt, â€Å"†¦ you could get a year for that† (85), directly pointing out to him he’s breaking a law. Matt knows that for, â€Å"He had always been a fearful father† (88), and even though he still demonstrates a respect for nature and a love for his family, he now behaves indifferently about the potential consequences.

Friday, July 19, 2019

Media Advertising - Societal Conformity and Advertisement of Cigarettes

Societal Conformity and Advertisement of PALL MALL Cigarettes Sloan Wilson did not publish The Man in the Gray Flannel Suit, a classic on 1950's middle-class conformity, until 1955. But, by July 1953, PALL MALL cigarette advertisers appear aware that "society seemed to reward those who lacked rough edges and eschewed eccentricity" (Blum 794). This conclusion seems justified by a TIME magazine advertisement. Here, these promoters apply this conformity principle and other advertising techniques to a specific socioeconomic group. They seek to lure the expanding male, middle-class audience by presenting indecorous fun, an enticing social situation, and smooth smoking delight all stemming from their product. The advertisement's rich red coloring immediately strikes a viewer with exciting and salacious overtones. The red lettering, border, cigarette package, and swimsuit all emphasize social and physical pleasure. The other colors' absence only strengthens the red coloring's implications. Prominent curving lines support the coloring's implied connection between enjoyment and the product. The foreground woman's curvaceous waist, chest, shoulders, hair, and cheeks give the scene a fun and lively feeling. Further in the background, the other women's similarly curved bodies also emphasize the cigarette's fun. Even the arching beach umbrellas portray such a feeling. Finally, the small boat's billowing sails, pushed by the wind, show excitement and pleasure, an appeal directly to the intended audience. Other aspects strengthen the advertisement design's sexual appeal. The foreground woman's strapless swimming suit, highlighted in red, is the most notable example. Her chest prominently resides above horizontal boxes in both th... asserting, "PALL MALL gives you a smoothness, mildness and satisfaction no other cigarette offers you." Of course, the audience need not accept the text's promise of pleasure. They can easily see that PALL MALLs bring happiness. The picture clearly shows that all middle-class white males frolicking on beaches with beautiful women carry PALL MALL cigarettes. After all, the advertisement's fun and sexy appeal, its enticement to social enjoyment, and its portrayal of the brand's pleasures certainly imply that PALL MALLs bring social happiness. Then again, cigarette advertisers notoriously ignore tobacco's detrimental effects, but who has time to consider negatives when viewing such an appealing scene? WORKS CITED Blum, John, et al. The National Experience: A History of the United States. 5th ed. New York: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, Incorporated, 1981.

Islams Appeal Essay -- Islam Middle East Islamic Essays History

Islam's Appeal Islam revolutionized the way people thought in the Middle-East. The Prophet spewed forth â€Å"The Word of God† (Cleveland 8) amid reflection, whether his own or that of God, concerning â€Å"the problems which afflicted Meccan society† (8). The subsequent production of the Quran fostered discipline and promoted spiritual growth. Mohammad, under the banner of Islam, united nomadic, feuding tribes in the barren plains of Arabia. The Seal of Prophets brought new rights to women and renewed a commitment to aid the destitute. All Muhammad’s revelations brought welcome change. One thousand years later, the message has not changed in any significant respect. One-time innovation was Islam’s blessing- but is now its curse. In my opinion, steadfast refusal of the ulama reduces the overall appeal of Islam. Sometime in the tenth century, the ulama shut the door on modernization by halting the modification of the shari’ah. Beforehand, the academic community was able to make additions to Islamic law through consensus, or ijma (30). Some three hundred years after the foundation of t...

Thursday, July 18, 2019

Me as a Writer

In the essays â€Å"How Computers Change the Way We Think† and â€Å"Is Google Making Us Stupid† both authors address the issue that throughout the years technology has changed the way we think and process information. In Nicholas Carr's â€Å"Is Google Making Us Stupid† he describes how the internet shapes the way we process material when reading.Before people use to take their time and read and analyze text, but now we skim through it. While reading, people most of the time rush through it to get the gist of it. I occasionally find myself running through pages of a psychology book to get the answer to a question as fast as possible. In Sherry Turkle's â€Å"How Computers Change the Way We Think† she lists different topics and how the computer effects each of them. For example, privacy was sheltered in the past where now it has become open. We now have twitter and facebook for the whole world to see.Sherry Turkle writes about her experience at an institut e of technology where a professor spoke about how calculators are make a negative impact on students. Students are using calculators and relying on a piece of technology to punch in numbers and calculate the equation for us without us even having to think about the problem. Instead of using a pen and paper and step by step problem solving in our heads and making our brains work we rely on technology to do the work for us. Aside from relying on calculators the main source that people rely most on is computers.Computers have changed people in many different ways. For example a research paper. Books were the main source for gathering information to write a research paper, but now people just use computers are click on link after link to find all the information they need. This affects how people process information because instead of reading deep into the book and understanding the information, they briefly skim through the internet and find the information they need.From reading both pieces, I can understand each of the points that were brought up. I feel that in today's world computers and digital technology are a main source of connection, productivity and distraction. Due to this and to a constant exposure to the basic functions of a computer, digital technology such as video games, for example ipads, and the internet itself, we are being influenced what we do and accomplish online.This is affecting the way people act and interact with others socially. Being behind a computer changes the way you think. It is easy to respond to others due to the fact that you have time to think about what you want to say and how you are going to say it. People just type away and when done they have the ability to fix what they are about to say. It changes how they act with people face to face because they don’t know what to say and don’t have time to think about it.Sherry Turkle also talks about privacy and how in the past our privacy was sheltered and now has no meaning because people are unaware that privacy is a right not a privilege. Students ‘blog’ and ‘tweet’ about personal information that on some social networks is available for the entire world to see within minutes of posting.Both Carr and Turkle relate to one another in the sense that they agree that computers are influencing the way we understand and process information. They both say that we can take on the qualities of a computer and can influence the way we speak and write.

Wednesday, July 17, 2019

Efeects on Moving to Another State

Shanell Broussard J. Davis English 090, 4206 03 April 2013 achievements on moving to other pronounce Moving can be every sorts of things. It can be fun to most or a worst nightmargon. closely cadences trips are forced due to certain(p) situations, such as raw stage business or trouble in home. No matter what the reason moving to other articulate for anybody is somewhat difficult. I go from forward- flavour York to North Carolina a course of instruction ago. I decided to run a focus with my gran until I can liquidate on my feet.For me, the specific yields of moving from integrity state to another(prenominal) were, meeting new spate, starting over and emotions. The first large effect of moving from one state to another for me was meeting new throng. qualification new friends is not easy, because I am not a gregarious psyche which can be a trauma for me. Plus in todays society I can not trust everybody. Me being from New York, people tend to judge me. They may figure I stupefy a revolting attitude or that I mobilise I am better than them because of where I come from.So when I am start in the public I do try and overhaul with others erst I pay back held a conversation with soulfulness and tell them that I am from New York they seem surprise, because they heard of northern people being arrogant and rude. Which some quantify get annoying, I feel akin I have to put forth unnecessary when trying to get to know psyche I urgency people to fabricate their own opinion ab stunned who I am and not what they heard. I want them to see that there are some good people up north. later a few days I started being more confident in talking to people.The second significant effect of moving from one state to another is starting over in feeling for a decent neighborhood, to raise my children. non knowing which areas were good or unskilled made the decision difficult for me. purpose the right neighborhood was not my yet issue conclusion th e right flat was not easy either. The area would have to be kid friendly, a fellowship park and pool would be nice. I have to be sure if it is the specify for me, for I do not excogitation on moving no time soon. Once that is done, I can move on to my next step which is finding the right daycare for my children to attend.Just like the restitute issue it is somewhat similar. I have to sincerely do my research for daycares I am very nervous about leave my children with someone I a lot know. With younger kids that are unable to communicate the situation is harder to deal with. There are things that I have to look for such as, the cleanliness of the area, how well do the other assistants interact with the children and so forth. The third significant effect of moving from one state to another was the emotions of the love ones around me. With the big move came a lot of stress.Having to deal with the move, looking for the right daycare and doctors was not a very easy thing. But what really affected me, is when I knew I was leaving behind all my family and friends. quite a little I known all my life were not going to be there anymore. The children as well showed signs that the move had affected them. They were moody than usual. When move them off at daycare they would send for and scream, sometimes they would even act out in class. I was called several times the first few weeks. Adjusting to this unfamiliar send out was somewhat difficult for me.Not knowing where to relinquish to, feeling like I had no one to confide in was really stressful. Feeling like the move was not going to work out, like if I had failed and that I was not going to survive. People all around the world has experient a difficult move once in there life. There entrust feel like so many hassles in a situation like this one. I had no choice notwithstanding to except all that I went through. I had to be strong not nevertheless for myself, but for my children. There was no way that I w ould give up accomplishing something I did all on my own. So I prayed it to be over soon.