Wednesday, December 11, 2019
Question: Discuss about the Regulatory Context and Counterfactual Assumptions. Answer: Introduction System is indicative of separate parts that are interrelated to each other and which works towards reaching a common goal. Systems thinking can prove to be useful in dealing with problems relating to sustainability as it helps to look at things from a macroscopic viewpoint as compared to that of a short picture. Systems thinking has been made use of by academicians along with practitioners to resolve issues relating to sustainability.Sustainability is the unique property pertaining to the biological systems and it is characterized by pursuit of common ideal. Healthy ecosystem is necessary for the survival of the organisms on earth. The specific term, sustainability refers to the target of humanity to reach a state of human- ecosystem equilibrium (Haines 2016). This essay talks about deforestation which is a problem in Australia and how systems thinking can help in developing solution to that of sustainability development challenge. Australia is the sixth largest country in the world and it can be said to be one of the developed countries. It is known for the harsh climates along with that of poor soil fertility but the social success of the place are on account of the sound environmental policies. The sound environmental policies have helped in preventing large-scale disaster. It has been suggested that habitat loss through that of vegetation clearing is an important driver pertaining to decline in population. The highest clearance rates are in those areas where the soil was suited to that of agriculture which was generally in the coastal area (Molderez and Ceulemans 2018). The forests in South Australia were mostly cleared during that of early 20th century. The woody vegetation of Australia is an important carbon store that can help in removing gas house emissions. With the growth of vegetation, carbon can be sequestered in that of the plant tissue that can result in reduced level of that of carbondioxide. It has been found that the forest soil of Australia can store around 44 billion tonne of that of carbon dioxide that represents 80 times of the annual emission of that of Australia (Millon 2015). The clearing of trees paves the path for releasing of large amount of greenhouse gas into that of the atmosphere. Deforestation takes place in Australia owing to various reasons like for development of infrastructure and for that of housing development. According to me, systems thinking can help in dealing with the environmental related challenges. There is significant difference between that of the traditional thinking approach and that of system thinking approach. The world had moved towards the era of globalization. The world has to face several complexities in the coming years and system thinking can be of immense help for developing solutions to that of sustainability challenges (Princiotta and Loughlin 2014). The different organizations can make a meaningful impact by introducing the policy of zero deforestation that can help in cleaning up the supply chain.The suppliers should be held accountable for producing different kinds of commodities like timber along with paper (Barlow et al. 2016). The non-recycled products that are bought by the company should help in ensuring that the virgin fiber that has been used is certified by that of third party certification. Sustainability challenges are also known as adaptive challenges as the protocols that have already been established cannot be applied to the particular situation. However, it can also be stated that no unified approach exists that can help in dealing with the sustainability challenge (Burns, Kick and Davis 2015). System thinking can prove to be of immense help in changing the mental models that can help in dealing with the problems related to sustainability. It comprises of technologies along with skills that can help in removal of a problem. Sustainability challenges require innovative thinking on the part of the environmentalists and it will need innovative research methods to resolve the problems. Systemic thinking can prove to be of great help in resolving the issue of deforestation that exists in Australia. Forests play an important role in relation to ecological role and it can help in cooling the surface of the earth and regulate that of rainfall pattern. Report on that of forest preservation has stated that government along with business invests far more in the sector of agriculture as compared to that of reforestation. It has been found that around $ 777billion were spent on land development whereas only $ 20 billion was spent on that of reforestation (Evans 2016). It will need 10 times more than that of $ 20 billion to create a deforestation free economy (Murray et al. 2015). This however does not indicate that ten times more amount has to be raised. Redirecting the existing financial flow can prove to be of gre at help in dealing with the challenge of deforestation. A perception exists that deforestation is necessary for that of economic development and it is no different from the perception that fossil fuel is required for that of economic development. It is of crucial importance that economic development is decoupled from that of deforestation. This will need a shift in attitude along with that of appreciation of that of natural ecosystem. Law enforcement along with opportunities in relation to economic development can help in dealing with deforestation (Aoc.org.au 2018). A systemic thinking that can help in protecting the forests is that of putting a price on that of carbon. The solutions in relation to saving the forests are economic in nature (Reis and Guzmn 2015). Policies pertaining to putting a price on carbon can help in the creation of economic incentives that can help in preserving the forests. The incentives running in the opposite direction leads to the disappearance of the forests. The right kind of policies can help in spurring ec onomic growth that can increase the agricultural output and stop deforestation. Climate related goals cannot be achieved without reversing that of forest loss. There was little amount of planning at the initial stages however the preservation of the natural ecosystems can help in providing solutions to that of environmentally related challenges. Forests should be put under some kind of protection that can help in protecting them. It has been found that the tropical forests are mostly protected in Australia and no clearing can be noticed in these regions (Evans 2016). It has been seen that deforestation occur before that of protection that suggests that many extinctions will occur in the coming years unless great amount of effort is made in restoring the vast areas. Shifts in relation to environmental policy can help in the process of conservation of forests. There are some arguments that oppose that of system thinking approach. Experts have suggested that the system can help in solving wicked problems and on the other hand there are some researchers who have argued by saying that system thinking cannot work if all the components parts do no t work together (Pavlacky Jr, Possingham and Goldizen 2015). Systems thinking deals with the interaction between that of different elements and it is not possible for a vast system like that of environment to work along uniform lines. Systems thinking is more suited to that of organizational along with social learning. The different stakeholders related to environment management has to contribute equally for dealing with the issue related to deforestation. There are different kinds of interest groups and inter-dependency in relation to globalized society means that there should be co-operation at different levels for the plan to succeed (Mahmood, Pielke Sr and McAlpine 2016). Stakeholder pressure leads to the divergence between the objectives of different institutions and the actual implementation of their policies. The clashing of the ideologies of that of different interest groups leads to a problem that proves to be a hindrance for the implementation of different policies related to that of environment. Influence of that of stakeholder groups for adopting effective management practice often goes against the interests of media along with that of other political interests that does not allow the successful implementation of the environmental policies (Theguardian.com 2018). Scientific evidence has shown that pace of that of global warming or the issue of toxic material in that of the food chain will necessitate the changes of different factors. Stakeholders have been responsible for the risks related to environment either because of the fact that they have caused it or due to the fact that it is their duty to manage the risks related to deforestation (Reside et al. 2017). The stakes of different interest groups are different and the private interests of individuals seem to take a precedence ove r that of the public interest. The different stakeholders involved in relation to deforestation are that of small scale farmer, large scale farmer, firewood collector, timber trader, charcoal maker and livestock keeper. It is generally held that agriculture acts as the dominant driver in relation to deforestation. Shifting cultivation is practiced in the areas and in order to secure new land the farmers take resort to deforestation. Bush fire is another incident that can lead to forest degradation. The pastoralists have a notion that the burning of grass can encourage the regeneration of that of fresh grass (Woodward et al. 2014). This leads them to engage themselves in the practice of clearing of forests. Pattern pertaining to forest degradation and the low forest cover suggests that major shifts in relation to environmental policy is imperative at this stage. The usual attitude of the business can prove to be insufficient in dealing with deforestation. Adoption of sustainable approach will require that of new skills along with capabilities. Co-ordinating mechanisms are of crucial importance in resolving the problems related to deforestation (Sonter et al. 2017). It is important for the government to develop innovative manner of thinking that can help in the development of economic strategy along with that of infrastructure planning. It will prove to be difficult to resolve problems with the help of systems thinking on account of lack of information pertaining to land use along with that of rights. The rules in relation to land use are unclear and ambiguous. The different authorities make use of different kinds of maps in order to delimit that of land-management units (Bristow et al. 2016). It can prove to be difficult to obtain information regarding land cover. New remote sensing technology have been developed in the recent years but it proves to be difficult to obtain sufficient information at that of the operational level. Conclusion: Systems thinking can help in providing insights relating to sustainability problems and it helps in looking at things from a broader view. Globalization makes the world face severe complexities and systems thinking can help in solving the important issues to a large extent. It can however also be said that there exists no unified rule that can help in the process of providing solutions to that of environmental problems. Systems thinking can help to a great extent in developing solutions to that of environmental challenges and the law enforcement agencies can provide crucial support for dealing with the challenge. Forests have an important role to play for cooling the earth and regulation of the pattern of rainfall. Putting price on carbon can help in the process of preservation of the forests. The different policies can lead to economic incentives that can play a crucial role for saving the forests. It has however also been deduced that the different ideologies prevailing in the soci ety has led to the developing of various policies that does not work along uniform lines. The different stakeholder groups work for their own benefit and the leading role played by the media in the present age does not allow the implementation of policies related to environment. The stakeholders in relation to deforestation are that of farmer, livestock keeper and that of firewood collector. It is primarily agriculture that augments the process of deforestation. Shifting cultivation is carried out in different areas and the farmers carry out deforestation in order to get new land. New skills and capabilities are needed in order to deal with the issue of deforestation. Co-ordinating mechanisms can be of great help to provide solutions to the sustainability problems. The government should focus on innovative manner pertaining to thinking that can help in developing economy strategy and that of infrastructure planning. The dearth of information in relation to land use can prove to be a barrier in solving the process of deforestation. References: Aoc.org.au (2018).Act on Climate. [online] Available at: https://www.aoc.org.au/australia-ngos [Accessed 18 Apr. 2018]. Barlow, J., Lennox, G.D., Ferreira, J., Berenguer, E., Lees, A.C., Mac Nally, R., Thomson, J.R., de Barros Ferraz, S.F., Louzada, J., Oliveira, V.H.F. and Parry, L., 2016. Anthropogenic disturbance in tropical forests can double biodiversity loss from deforestation.Nature,535(7610), p.144. Bristow, M., Hutley, L.B., Beringer, J., Livesley, S.J., Edwards, A.C. and Arndt, S.K., 2016. Quantifying the relative importance of greenhouse gas emissions from current and future savanna land use change across northern Australia.Biogeosciences,13(22), p.6285. Burns, T.J., Kick, E.L. and Davis, B.L., 2015. Theorizing and rethinking linkages between the natural environment and the modern world-system: Deforestation in the late 20th century.Journal of World-Systems Research,9(2), pp.357-390. Evans, M.C., 2016. Deforestation in Australia: drivers, trends and policy responses.Pacific Conservation Biology,22(2), pp.130-150. Haines, S., 2016.The systems thinking approach to strategic planning and management. CRC Press. Mahmood, R., Pielke Sr, R.A. and McAlpine, C.A., 2016. Climate-relevant land use and land cover change policies.Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society,97(2), pp.195-202. Millon, D., 2015. Corporate social responsibility and environmental sustainability. Molderez, I. and Ceulemans, K., 2018. The power of art to foster systems thinking, one of the key competencies of education for sustainable development.Journal of Cleaner Production. Murray, J.P., Grenyer, R., Wunder, S., Raes, N. and Jones, J.P., 2015. Spatial patterns of carbon, biodiversity, deforestation threat, and REDD+ projects in Indonesia.Conservation Biology,29(5), pp.1434-1445. Pavlacky Jr, D.C., Possingham, H.P. and Goldizen, A.W., 2015. Integrating life history traits and forest structure to evaluate the vulnerability of rainforest birds along gradients of deforestation and fragmentation in eastern Australia.Biological Conservation,188, pp.89-99. Princiotta, F.T. and Loughlin, D.H., 2014. Global climate change: The quantifiable sustainability challenge.Journal of the Air Waste Management Association,64(9), pp.979-994. Reis, E.J. and Guzmn, R.M., 2015. An econometric model of Amazon deforestation. Reside, A.E., Beher, J., Cosgrove, A.J., Evans, M.C., Seabrook, L., Silcock, J.L., Wenger, A.S. and Maron, M., 2017. Ecological consequences of land clearing and policy reform in Queensland.Pacific Conservation Biology,23(3), pp.219-230. Sonter, L.J., Tomsett, N., Wu, D. and Maron, M., 2017. Biodiversity offsetting in dynamic landscapes: influence of regulatory context and counterfactual assumptions on achievement of no net loss.Biological conservation,206, pp.314-319. Theguardian.com (2018).We are destroying rainforests so quickly they may be gone in 100 years | John Vidal. [online] the Guardian. Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/global-development-professionals-network/2017/jan/23/destroying-rainforests-quickly-gone-100-years-deforestation [Accessed 18 Apr. 2018]. Woodward, C., Shulmeister, J., Larsen, J., Jacobsen, G.E. and Zawadzki, A., 2014. The hydrological legacy of deforestation on global wetlands.Science,346(6211), pp.844-847.
Wednesday, December 4, 2019
With the development and publication of SFAS 95, the primary categories of cash flow are defined as operating, investing and financing activities. SFAS 95 also defined cash to include cash equivalents with maturities of 90 days or less, such as treasury bills, commercial paper and money market funds Compelling Reasons for requiring a statement of Cash Flow: * Information provided: The statement of cash flows can provide the information that other financial statements canÃ¢â¬â¢t provide.The other financial statements such as Balance Sheet, which represents the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s financial condition at a specific point in time, the Income Statement, which presents the results of operations, i. e. profit or loss, for a specific period of time, and the Statement of Owners Equity, which details the changes in the value of the owners stake in the company. In accrual accounting, these other documents are based on when transactions took place, rather than when cash changed hands. We will write a custom essay sample on Cash Flow Statement or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The Statement of Cash Flows provides the data on what happened from a cash perspective. They present relevant information about the cash receipts and cash payments of an enterprise during a period. Statements of financial position include information that is often used in assessing an entityÃ¢â¬â¢s liquidity and financial flexibility, but a statement of financial position provided only an incomplete picture of either liquidity or financial flexibility unless it is used in conjunction with at least a cash flow statement.There are 3 major categories for the information that is reported on the Statement of Cash Flows. They are operating activities, investing activities, and financing activities. Between the three major areas, every aspect of a businessÃ¢â¬â¢ transactions is covered. For example, it shows how a company purchases and finances an asset instead of just showing the amount. * Usefulness:The information provided in a statement of cash flows, if used with related disclosures and information in the other financial statements, can help investors, creditors, and others to (a) assess the enterpriseÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to generate positive future net cash flows; (b) assess the enterpriseÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to meet its obligations, its ability to pay dividends, and its needs for external financing; (c) assess the reasons for differences between net income and associated cash receipts and payments; and (d) assess the effects on an enterpriseÃ¢â¬â¢s financial position of both its cash and noncash investing and financing transactions during the period; (e) improve the comparability of different fi rms operating performance by eliminating the effects of different accounting methods.For example, in Balance sheet, some companies may use FIFO method to measure inventory while some others may use LIFO method; (f) assess future cash flows, provide feedback about actual cash flows; (g) Cash flow statement helps for appraisal of various capital investment programmers to determine their profitability and viability. Support and Criticisms for Statement of Cash Flows: * A general criticism is that cash flow statements are not meaningful for some institutions such as financial institutions, small businesses, investment companies and non-for-profit organizations. Thus, the information in the statement of cash flows is not useful. In the case of financial institutions, the identification of the core operating activities is important, because they differ markedly from nonfinancial companies in this respect. Consider commercial banking institutions, where the core operations can be divided between onÃ¢â¬âbalance sheet activities and offÃ¢â¬âbalance sheet activities.The offÃ¢â¬âbalance sheet activities consist primarily of fee-based activities for services rendered that do not create an asset or a liability. These create no problem for the cash flow presentation because they appear on the income statement and flow directly through the operating section of the cash flow statement. The major problems are created by activities that have significant impact on the balance sheet. They are: 1) managing the accounts of depositors, which appears on the balance sheet as liabilities; 2) lending money to customers, which appears on the balance sheet as assets; and 3) trading in securities, which appears on the bala nce sheet as assets.If these are a bankÃ¢â¬â¢s core operations, one would expect them to be in the operating activities section of the cash flow statement. Instead, customer deposits are listed as financing activities, while loans to customers and securities activities appear in the investing activities section. As a result, the figure for Ã¢â¬Å"cash provided by operationsÃ¢â¬ is meaningless. In other words, the breakdown of cash flows into operating, investing, and financing activitiesÃ¢â¬âas presently constituted for financial institutionsÃ¢â¬âis not useful to readers of the financial statements. A totally new form of presentation is needed to provide useful cash flow information. * Reporting of Operating ActivitiesAlthough the accounting profession talks about the importance of comparability of financial information, the fact that interest paid is treated as an operating activity while dividends paid is treated as a financing activity makes it difficult, if not impossible, to compare the performance of companies that make different financing choices. Analysts have resorted to their own measures to make such comparisons. On e of the most common is earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation, and amortization (EBITDA); however, other means to compare exist, with no commonly agreed upon measure for all to use. Up to now, the accounting profession has simply ignored the issue. The only analytical measure that has been dealt with by the accounting profession is earnings per share, because this must be presented on the income statement. A second problem affecting the operating activities involves the financing of receivables.Years ago, receivables were financed through borrowing, with receivables pledged as collateral. The monies received were treated as a financing activity, which was appropriate. In recent years, however, increasing concern on keeping debt off the balance sheet has led companies to replace the above treatment with sales of receivables, with and without recourse. Economically, these activities still represent a form of financing. The accounting rules, however, allow these transactions to be treated as operating activities instead of financing activities. This makes these transactions doubly attractive to companies: They keep the borrowing off the balance sheet and inflate cash provided by operations. Economically, the ledge of accounts receivable is the same as the sale of accounts receivable, but they are treated differently in the cash flow statement. This treatment is inconsistent. Another problem that causes distortions in operating cash flows stems from the treatment of dividends received as an operating activity rather than as an investing activity. When a company has significant investments in affiliated companies, it has the ability to manipulate its own Ã¢â¬Å"cash provided by operationsÃ¢â¬ by increasing the dividends it receives from such companies. This simple technique has been used by many companies to inflate operating cash flows. Furthermore, dividend income comes from investments.If the former is shown in the section of operating activities, and the latter placed in investing activities, the financial statement reader will not be able to visualize the whole picture of investment strategy. Another potentially serious distortion to operating cash flows comes from the rule that requires taxes to be treated as an operating activity, even when the gain being taxed is included in investing activities. For example, consider a company that has low operating profit but has a large gain from the sale of investments. The bulk of the pretax income is from this gain, and therefore the bulk of the income tax expense is related to this gain.On the statement of cash flows, however, the gain is removed from operating activities and included under investing activities instead, as part of the proceeds from the sale of the investments. But the income tax expense on that gain remains in the operating activities sections, genera ting substantial negative cash from operations. This clearly is misleading, and violates the matching rules required on the income statement. * The Investing Activities Section For many years, the distinction between cash equivalents (investments having no principal risk) and other marketable securities has caused serious confusion for the untrained reader of financial statements.Cash equivalents are treated as part of cash, while marketable securities are shown as investing activities. Where a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s portfolio manager does a lot of trading and switching between these two types of securities, very large numbers will appear in the investing activities section as Ã¢â¬Å"purchases of marketable securitiesÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"sales of marketable securities. Ã¢â¬ It is not uncommon to see financial statements in which these numbers represent the largest cash flows. Were one to ask the untrained reader what the most significant events for the company were during the year, the answer might be the purchasing and selling of mar ketable securities.Yet these numbers are irrelevant for understanding the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s performance. They merely clutter up the statement and cause confusion. Another major problem with the investing activities section is that it is based on the rule that only cash amounts may be shown in investing and financing activities. Thus, for example, if one company acquired another at a cost of $10 billion, but only $1 billion of it was in cash, with the rest paid in the form of debt and equity instruments, the cash flow statement would show only the $1 billion cash amount paid as the cost of the acquisition. The other $9 billion would be relegated to a footnote. The untrained reader would get a false picture of the true cost of the acquisition.This is another example showing the deficiency of the current rules in preparing the cash flow statement. The rules ignore the vision of a complete transaction. * Indirect Method vs. Direct Method 1. Advantages of Indirect Method The principal advantage of the indirect method is that it highlights the differences between net income and NCFO. Highlighting these differences is useful when using NCFO as an alternative performance metric to report the cash flow and accrual components of net income. As a result, the indirect method helps users understand the leads and lags between NCFO and net income. It highlights the operating changes in non-cash working capital accounts.For example, the indirect method highlights any buildup of operating receivables (payables) that decrease (increase) NCFO relative to net income, or the reduction of operating receivables (payables) that increase (decrease) NCFO relative to net income. 2. Disadvantages of Indirect Method The principal disadvantage of the indirect method is that it does not report actual operating inflows and outflows. It reports only one cash flow for operating activities Ã¢â¬â NCFO. For this reason, operating activities are reported net, not gross, under the indirect method. As a result, the indirect method is less informative than the direct method supplemented by a reconciliation of net income and NCFO.It is also criticized for repeating information already presented in the income statement and the comparative balance sheet. 3. Advantages of Direct Method SFAS-95 notes that the principal advantage of the direct method is that it is more informative than the indirect method because it reports operating cash receipts and payments. In a fundamental sense, the direct method is finer, or more informative, than the indirect method. The direct method with the reconciliation provides all the information provided by the indirect method plus information on gross operating inflows and outflows. Accordingly, report users could effortlessly transform a direct method cash flow statement into an indirect method cash flow statement.However, report users cannot effortlessly transform an indirect method cash flow statement into a direct method cash flow statement because information on gross operating inflows and outflows is not provided. Accordingly, the direct method is finer, or more informative, than the indirect method. 4. Disadvantages of Direct Method Those companies that use the direct method are required under SFAS-95 to provide a supplemental reconciliation of net income and NCFO. As a result, the direct method requires more work than the indirect method. Additionally, some accountants caution that a direct method cash flow statement seemingly duplicates similar information presented in the income statement and thereby may undermine user perception of the usefulness of accrual basis income measurement.In response to the FASB Exposure Draft, which favored but did not propose to require the direct method, many spokesmen for corporate management claimed that the direct method is impractical and costly to apply. More specifically, they claimed that the direct method would require costly modifications of accounting information systems to routinely generate information on operating cash inflows and outflows not previously accumulated. Additionally, few public companies issued direct method statements o f changes in financial position prior to the adoption of SFAS-95 than the indirect method. Influence of this statement * How can the Statement of Cash Flows be used by the investment community to determine how healthy a company may be?One primary use is to help determine future risk. A company generally will record the revenue that drives earnings when their customers receive their merchandise, whether the customer has paid for the merchandise or not. The Statement of Cash Flows can show the investment community how much cash is actually collected. So, if earnings are good yet cash collections are not, the investor should be worried: future earnings could be at risk if bad debt becomes an issue. * Investors can also get a feel for whether or not a company is playing earnings games by comparing net income on the Income Statement with Cash from Operating Activities from the Statement of Cash Flows.Investment analysts typically like to see a ratio of those two numbers close to one, because the closer it is to one, the higher-quality the earnings are considered. * Investment experts also like to compare the rates at which net income and operating cash are growing. If the two have historically moved at similar rates but cash is now slowing, it represents an early war ning sign that the company may soon experience issues. Accounting experts pay a great deal of attention to accounts receivable, representing what customers owe the company. When receivables rise at a faster pace than sales, the company may be having trouble collecting what its customers owe.Since cash isnt flowing in as it should be, a rise shows up as a negative on the cash-flow statement. * An analysis of the Statement of Cash Flows can also provide an early warning that demand for the companys products are softening. Because the purchase of inventory requires cash, an increase in inventory causes cash to fall. On the other hand, when liabilities such as accounts payable increase, so should a companys cash balances. By delaying payment to its creditors, management can free up cash. This is not always a good thing for the company to do, because it could be stringing its customers, partners, and vendors along. Possible Changes and the reasons for the proposed changes * Direct Method vs. Indirect Method
Thursday, November 28, 2019
The First Amendment No other democratic society in the world permits personal freedoms to the degree of the United States of America. Within the last sixty years, American courts, especially the Supreme Court, have developed a set of legal doctrines that thoroughly protect all forms of the freedom of expression. When it comes to evaluating the degree to which we take advantage of the opportunity to express our opinions, some members of society may be guilty of violating the bounds of the First Amendment by publicly offending others through obscenity or racism. Americans have developed a distinct disposition toward the freedom of expression throughout history. The First Amendment clearly voices a great American respect toward the freedom of religion. It also prevents the government from "abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances." Since the early history of our country, the protection of basic freedoms has been of the utmost importance to Americans. In Langston Hughes' poem, "Freedom," he emphasizes the struggle to enjoy the freedoms that he knows are rightfully his. He reflects the American desire for freedom now when he says, "I do not need my freedom when I'm dead. I cannot live on tomorrow's bread." He recognizes the need for freedom in its entirety without compromise or fear. I think Langston Hughes captures the essence of the American immigrants' quest for freedom in his poem, "Freedom's Plow." He accurately describes American's as arriving with nothing but dreams and building America with the hopes of finding greater freedom or freedom for the first time. He depicts how people of all backgrounds worked together for one cause: freedom. I selected Ray Bradbury's Fahrenheit 451 as a fictitious example of the evils of censorship in a world that is becoming illiterate. In this book, the government convinces the public that book reading is evil because it spreads harmful opinions and agitates people against the government. The vast majority of people accept this censorship of expression without question and are content to see and hear only the government's propaganda. I found this disturbing yet realistic. Bradbury's hidden opposition to this form of censorship was apparent throughout the book and finally prevailed in the end when his main character rebelled against the practice of burning books. Among the many forms of protests are pickets, strikes, public speeches and rallies. Recently in New Jersey, more than a thousand community activists rallied to draft a "human" budget that puts the needs of the poor and handicapped as a top priority. Rallies are an effective means for people to use their freedoms effectively to bring about change from the government. Freedom of speech is constantly being challenged as is evidenced in a recent court case where a Gloucester County school district censored reviews of two R-rated movies from a school newspaper. Superior Court Judge, Robert E. Francis ruled that the student's rights were violated under the state Constitution. I feel this is a major break through for students' rights because it limits editorial control of school newspapers by educators and allows students to print what they feel is important. A newly proposed bill (A-557) would prevent school officials from controlling the content of student publications. Critics of the bill feel that "student journalists may be too young to understand the responsibilities that come with free speech." This is a valid point; however, it would provide an excellent opportunity for them to learn about their First Amendment rights that guarantees free speech and freedom of the press. In his commencement address to Monmouth College graduates, Professor Alan Dershowitz of Harvard Law School defended the broad right to free speech. He stated, "My message to you graduates is to assert your rights, to use them responsibly and boldly, to oppose racism, to oppose sexism, to oppose homophobia and bigotry of all kinds and to do so within the spirit of the First Amendment, not by creating an exception to it." I agree that one should feel free to speak openly as long as it does not directly or indirectly lead to the harm of others. One of the more controversial issues was the recent 2 Live Crew incident involving obscenity in rap music. Their record, "As Nasty as They Wanna Be," was ruled obscene in federal court. They were acquitted of the charges and quickly became a free speech martyr. Although many stores pulled the album, over two million copies sold as a result of the incident. I feel
Sunday, November 24, 2019
This essay is a short topic Hieroglyphic Symbols and their beginning and my personal experiences with them.
This essay is a short topic Hieroglyphic Symbols and their beginning and my personal experiences with them. Hieroglyphic Symbols BeginningIn 1996 I was stationed in Cairo, Egypt assigned to perform infectious disease research for the Middle East. While their, I had an opportunity to do some research on hieroglyphic symbols. My research shows where these symbols came from and the importance of this fascinating language; that is "Greek" to most people today.In the ancient times between 4000-30 B.C., the Egyptian Pharaohs were the most powerful people in existence. Although they had sophisticated methods for building and irrigation, one area that they lagged in sophistication was the basic form they used for writing their language. The ancient Egyptians used hieroglyphic symbols that were often expressed through pictographs that are stylized pictures used to express words and subjects.The use of pictographs was a very primitive form of communication that took lots of time and energy to inscribe. They did not describe the subject in great detail whereas in the English language you can describe the subject in great detail with little or no effort.The Pyramid of Khafre and the Great Sphinx of Giza...When using pictographs the Egyptians didn't use connectives, adjectives, verbs, or nouns. They would simply sketch a series of pictures in reference to the subject that they were addressing. Also when using pictographs it leaves most of the interpretation of the writings up to the reader's imagination, therefore often not accurately describing and communicating the findings or ideas to the author.Using the writing system in the English language a person is able to tell the reader exactly what you're writing about and do so in great detail. In our current system of writing we use a series of twenty-six letters; six of the letters are vowels and the rest are consonants. We arrange these letters in different sequences to create many different expressive words such as nouns, verbs, adjectives, and pronouns.
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Financial Corporations and Financial Accounting - Essay Example ement, Tax planning, Notional values in the eyes of the public, advantages & disadvantages and Identity phenomenon, etc.Ã The discussions about the advantages and disadvantages of incorporation would be very meaningful with background analysis of the other factors governing incorporation.Ã Ã The World Bank has launched a new online discussion on Ã¢â¬ËBusiness Registration.Ã¢â¬â¢Ã Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã Ã¢â¬ËOver the past two years many OECD countries have greatly improved their regulatory burdens with regards to business incorporation.Ã¢â¬â¢Ã (World Bank Private Sector Development Blog, 2010).Ã Needless to say, the importance of incorporation and the need for minimizing the burden of red tape culture in this respect, for the encouragement of private sector has been recognized throughout the world.Ã Ã However, its utility to a particular business enterprise is governed by the factors referred above. The size of the venture, nature of the business and the purpose of the enterprise are the important factors in deciding the suitable form of ownership.Ã For example, in the case of a venture capital company, where the risk element is inherent in the business, the promoters would like to go for incorporation for the obvious reasons.Ã The investors with the risk taking ability and propensity to speculate would invest in the venture capital business, taking chance with regard to theÃ viability of the project, where the risk reward ratio is very high. For big projects with long gestation periods, from the angle of capital formation, credit facilities, employee strength, etc. incorporation of the business is necessary. Raising funds through initial public offerings of stock is easier for the big projects. Now fundraising is the world phenomenon with an array of instruments such a Global Depository Receipts (GDR), American Depository Receipts (ADR), etc. does not arise.Ã Therefore long term capital appreciation is the feature of the growth oriented companies,Ã Ã and the continuity is
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Building on prior success - Assignment Example This version comes with a secure socket tunneling protocol from Microsoft, which would work efficiently with other supporting security protocols in providing secure connections. This tunnel provides a mechanism for safely transporting encryptions through almost all proxy servers and firewall. Incorporation of new servers into the system would include numerous activities of upgrading the current system, and ensuring compatibility with the operating system. Extra servers remain fundamental in increasing the available storage space within the company network system. Installation of extra servers would follow centralization of the servers; hence ensuring information retrieval from a central location. The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s head-office could potentially serve as the central location for new servers. This would essentially enable regional officesÃ¢â¬â¢ users to access information from company, servers through the internet. Similarly, remote employees would also access required files contained in central servers from different locations. Central server installation remains fundamental in enhancing information security as information could be protected from a single source (Hallberg, 2009). Confidentiality of the information could become immensely enhanced through sender authent ication at the central server, enabling secure information movement. The best way for employees to remotely access Ocper Inc. network would be through utilizing mobile virtual private network. Mobile VPN setting functions efficiently in situations where the endpoint VPN contains multiple access points. The mobile network can also be accessed using cellular devices carrying data between several Wi-Fi access points. These individuals could utilize modern I-phones, with capability to access VPN connections, as the network connection enables seamless roaming between networks through utilizing wireless connections. The advantage of utilizing
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Effect of Unethical Behavior Article Analysis (ACCOUNTING COURSEWORK) - Assignment Example Hence, enabling wise investments; this will not only benefit the individual firms but also augment the stateÃ¢â¬â¢s economic stability. Accounting malpractices presently assume numerous forms that are evident both in the regimeÃ¢â¬â¢s institutions and in individual corporations. For illustration, inaccurate financial records that result from an intentional manipulation by the responsible individuals (Bisoux, 2005). Since, they do have hidden intentions meant to benefit themselves via presenting false figures that would derail the key organizationsÃ¢â¬â¢ auditing process. Primarily, these staffs encompass the accountants who are responsible in the daily handling of accounting books. The individuals usually manipulate figures to equal a false amount after colluding with fellow workers and have chopped some amount, hence trying to make a cover up. In some incidents, these malpractices may entail the top officials, but mostly evident amid the middle staffs (Bisoux, 2005). Additionally, the malpractices may entail misusing funds via channeling them in diverse directions to cater for expenses not intended for or inappropriate. For illustration, overspending especially in a venture where the undertakers or those pioneering team would benefit in some way. This deprives the firm the necessary financial resources meant for boosting its sustainability or expansion and instead starts encountering difficulties in its management (Bisoux, 2005). Consequently, this financial misappropriation will indirectly will feature in its accounting standings. This would be via meticulous study by potential investors who will notice the evident misappropriation and decline in investing in it. Since the inception of Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, numerous organizations and even regimes have recorded an growth of their economic stability (Bisoux, 2005). This emanates from the accountability, which the act has instilled