Monday, September 30, 2019

Music and Cognitive Functioning Essay

Music is an art form and one of the most popular media utilized to convey ideas, views, and emotions. It plays various, significant part in everyone’s life. It can calm one’s mood and emotion. It can relax a person’s tensed body. However, it can also hype and motivate people. Music is also a means that we can use to express our ideas and messages. It can also be an extension of our personality and a manifestation of our identity. The type of music that we listen reflects what kind of person we are. It is often suggested to pregnant women to listen to classical music for it is believed that listening to classical music stimulates the baby’s activity inside the mother’s womb. It is also believed that listening to music by pregnant women increases the probability that their child will be intelligent. Some students can also study their lessons well while listening to music. The melodies and tunes make the environment conducive to learning. They tend to absorb and understand their lessons well while they are listening to their favorite songs. This idea poses the possibility of enhancing people’s cognitive capacity through music. Thus, this paper aims to discuss the relationship of music and a person’s cognitive capacity, and whether music increases a person’s intelligence. Music Music is an art, a craft, and an organized representation of sounds, silence, notes, and melodic tunes subjected in a time framework. Music includes a wide array of activities. It could be in the form of a mother putting her child to sleep through a lullaby, a group of kids singing their favorite nursery rhyme, a rock band playing their heart throbbing hits, or simply a person humming unconsciously (Miller 3). Music is a succession of arranged tones that produce a rhythm (Miller 3). This definition does not cover the characteristics of music, but it covers the description of the different genres people may be affiliated with. Music is relative and subjective. It conforms to the taste and preference of the person. Music lessons taught us that music is comprised of notes, staffs, pitch, and voice. These are the superficial discernible characteristics of music. These are the things you will learn in your music class. Music has different forms in various cultures, and it is experienced by individuals through different ways. Music has two subdivisions based on culture. These are the â€Å"high culture† and â€Å"low culture† types of music. High culture music is eminent in U. S. and Europe. This type of music includes the music of the western world formed during the different periods—Classical, Baroque, and Romantic, among others. It is considered as the art music and is performed in the concert halls and churches. It is treasured by people in the conventional music industry. The other type of music includes the contemporary kinds of music like jazz, blues, country, rock, pop, etc. Nowadays, the distinction between the high and low culture of music is widely accepted for it separates the quality of music of better quality, more advanced art music from the music played in the nightclubs and dance halls. Music and Intelligence People always look for ways and means to increase their intelligence. This is inherently true for parents, especially the first-time parents who want to practically boost the cognitive functioning of their children. There is news proliferated by the media that the music of Mozart can actually make a person smarter. Due to this evidence, some educators and policy makers even suggest that playing Mozart’s music in elementary schools should be mandated (Nairne 346). Everyone has been bestowed a gift to excel in different fields. Everyone has his or her own discernible characteristics that enable him or her to take on tasks. However, it was believed that people with high musical aptitude possess low academic aptitude. Nevertheless, in reality, there is no clear correlation between musical inclination and affinity and the academic performance or ability of a person (Gordon 22). Recently, there has been a media fuss questioning if the involvement in music makes a person smarter. There is a significant query of whether there is a â€Å"Mozart effect† if a person is involved in music. Does music enhance a person’s cognitive capacity? There are various studies reporting that music increases learning capability, while other research conducted shows otherwise. Hence, this only shows the limitations and the discrepancy in studying the impact of music on cognitive ability (Crowe 143). The researches conducted regarding the relationship of music and cognitive skills fall under music cognition. This particular field of study involves examination of the different aspects of cognition, including how music is processed by its listeners. It seeks to understand the underlying processes over the standard practices of analyzing, composing, and listening to music. Music has a significant impact on the brain processes. Learning is a complex process that cannot be reduced to a simple human process or experience. In learning, the development of a particular ability will enhance the abilities of a person (Crowe 143). There are really no sufficient analyses on the cognitive effects of long-term exposure to music and passive listening of music on intelligence. The most celebrated short-term effect of music on the increase in intelligence was the interpretation of the 1993 Mozart Effect study. Researchers claimed that 10 minutes exposure to compositions of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart could increase general IQ scores by 8 points (Brown and Volgsten 137). However, there are claims that the study lacks sufficient evidence that exposure to Mozart songs actually render the improvements on the cognitive functioning of an individual. An interesting article that was written by the proponents of the studies on Mozart effects states that there are other types of music which render similar effects, such as folk music, minimalist music, and other types of music that cause relaxation. They also compared the tests of their participants and saw no particular difference on the results on the tests which required remembering numbers and general tests of intelligence. Yet, the Mozart effect manifested in tests which required recognizing visual patterns and mentally rotating objects. The researchers, therefore, concluded that the exposure to Mozarts composition only affects the person’s spatial-reasoning abilities (Miche 16). Mozart songs may result in improvement for its omnificent and innovative schema. These songs activate the part of the brain which controls our spatial-reasoning tasks. Thus, this suggests that the persons involved may feel so relaxed and in a good mood, which allows them to perform the reasoning tasks better (Nairne 346). Furthermore, listening to Stephen King’s stories could also render Mozart effect, for the listeners find it enjoyable and entertaining. It relaxes them and enhances their spatial-reasoning skills. On the other hand, a study was conducted exposing participants to slow and sad selection of classical music, and significant findings failed to produce the Mozart effect. It greatly suggests that it is indeed the setting of the mood and arousal that are responsible for the improvements of the spatial-reasoning abilities of people (Nairne 346). The numerous studies mentioned earlier in the text only shows how psychological findings could be inaccurate and misused by the popular media. Although the various studies present valid findings, the improvements on the people’s abilities attributed to music were relatively minute and merely focused on a particular part of brain functioning. There are no stipulated evidences that suggest listening to Mozart or Stephen King produce lasting increase on the general intelligence. However, there may be ephemeral effects on the level of intelligence of a person. For instance, consuming anything that will make a person feel good and light would render the same improvements discussed by the researchers of Mozart effect. Thus, relaxing music makes one feel better about performing tasks, but it does not make hi or her smarter in any way (Nairne 346). Conclusion Music plays a significant role in everyone’s life. It is a tool for expressing our ideas and messages through the lyrics, melody, and rhythm of a song. It is an extension of our personality. We manifest ourselves—the kind of people we are—through the genre of music we listen to. Music inclination and intelligence have no significant correlation. There is a celebrated study which created hype in the media that exposure to Mozart’s composition have a significant increase on the general intelligence of a person. The Mozart effect is a study conducted which concluded that exposure to his music activates the brain functioning which controls the spatial-reasoning abilities. Another study conducted suggests that using slow and sad classical compositions to increase cognitive capacity. However, these types of music failed to render similar effects as the impact of Mozart’s songs. It therefore concludes that anything that makes you feel good and relaxed can make you perform a task better. Works Cited Brown, Steven and Ulrik Volgsten. Music and Manipulation: On the Social Uses and Social Control of Music. New York: Berghahn Books, Inc. , 2006. Crowe, Barbara J. Music and Soulmaking: Toward a New Theory of Music Therapy. Maryland: Scarecrow Press, Inc. , 2004. Gordon, Edwin E. A Music Learning Theory for Newborn and Young Children. Chicago, IL: GIA Publications, Inc. , 2003.

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Evil Triumphs but Never Conquers

Hakeem Hunter March 27 , 2013 English 3 In literature, evil often triumphs but never conquers. I think that this statement is saying that in works of literature evil might win the battle, as some may say, but it never wins the war. It could also mean that in all literature, there is always two sides. One being good and one being evil. The characters on the evil or bad side usually overpower the ones that are on the good side. I think that this is true because the evil characters are generally portrayed as being very smart and more ahead of the game.I agree with this statement because I’ve witnessed many things that could relate to this. No matter how far evil might seem to be ahead, at the end of the day there is always fairness. In the literary work The Crucible by Arthur Miller, Rebecca Nurse and John Proctor were accused of being witches. They were then summoned into court even though John Proctor confessed of being an adulterer. He seemed frustrated; he didn’t want to be hung because he was being accused. This example shows that evil triumphs. Dan forth said that his confession has to post on the church door.John immediately changed his confession and followed strongly with the rest of the innocent people to be hung. The evil side cannot conquer the good side. Another example of evil triumphing but not conquering is Abigail. Abigail serves as the spark of hate in the play. She tempts John Proctor into adultery and commits acts against the Puritan Religion. To escape her punishment when found in the unlawful act of dancing she deflects her actions and blames them on others. She has no regard for those whom may be hurt by her accusations of witchcraft on others.It even seems that she takes pleasure in her deception. All those she accuses are innocent, yet she manipulates many into believing her actions are good. Another character that plays, perhaps, the largest role in the play is the Puritan religion itself. It may not have lines itself or hav e its own body, but the Puritan code was set up in a manner that allowed the greatest evil of all, the judgment and taking of human lives. The religion is served as a holy red herring for the unholy acts of judgment, punishment, and vindictive actions. Puritan religion consistently works against all good in the play. Evil Triumphs but Never Conquers Hakeem Hunter March 27 , 2013 English 3 In literature, evil often triumphs but never conquers. I think that this statement is saying that in works of literature evil might win the battle, as some may say, but it never wins the war. It could also mean that in all literature, there is always two sides. One being good and one being evil. The characters on the evil or bad side usually overpower the ones that are on the good side. I think that this is true because the evil characters are generally portrayed as being very smart and more ahead of the game.I agree with this statement because I’ve witnessed many things that could relate to this. No matter how far evil might seem to be ahead, at the end of the day there is always fairness. In the literary work The Crucible by Arthur Miller, Rebecca Nurse and John Proctor were accused of being witches. They were then summoned into court even though John Proctor confessed of being an adulterer. He seemed frustrated; he didn’t want to be hung because he was being accused. This example shows that evil triumphs. Dan forth said that his confession has to post on the church door.John immediately changed his confession and followed strongly with the rest of the innocent people to be hung. The evil side cannot conquer the good side. Another example of evil triumphing but not conquering is Abigail. Abigail serves as the spark of hate in the play. She tempts John Proctor into adultery and commits acts against the Puritan Religion. To escape her punishment when found in the unlawful act of dancing she deflects her actions and blames them on others. She has no regard for those whom may be hurt by her accusations of witchcraft on others.It even seems that she takes pleasure in her deception. All those she accuses are innocent, yet she manipulates many into believing her actions are good. Another character that plays, perhaps, the largest role in the play is the Puritan religion itself. It may not have lines itself or hav e its own body, but the Puritan code was set up in a manner that allowed the greatest evil of all, the judgment and taking of human lives. The religion is served as a holy red herring for the unholy acts of judgment, punishment, and vindictive actions. Puritan religion consistently works against all good in the play.

Saturday, September 28, 2019

Everyday Use: A Question of Quilts Essay

In Everyday Use, Alice Walker presents the reader with two sisters who are as different as two sisters could ever be. They have very little in common, and in fact they think, walk, stand, and talk, so differently that strangers would not take them for sisters. They differ in a more significant way in terms of the themes of the story, too. Dee and Maggie have very different ideas about their heritage and their culture, and the part that culture plays in their lives. Only one sister can be right when it comes to culture and the question of who should get Mama’s quilts, and in this case, Maggie is more deserving, because she has a much more complete understanding of her culture and heritage than Dee does. Even though they have grown up in the same home, Maggie and Dee have very different values in terms of the way they see their culture. To Dee, culture is something that she has only recently discovered has been taken from her. Maggie, however, does not feel that her culture has been lost. She lives in her family home, with family objects around her, and culture is something she lives each and every day. Dee rejected her family and left home as soon as she was able, and never realized that she was leaving culture behind her. Even the quilts are proof of this—Dee does not even know who made them, whereas Maggie does know, and she was even taught to quilt by the women who made the quilts they are fighting over. Maggie, therefore, has a much better understanding of the fact that culture and family are inseparable. A second important aspect of this issue is family. Maggie and Dee see their family very differently. For Maggie, family is something to remember and be proud of, and she loves and honors her mother and other family members. Dee visits her family only because they have something she wants, and even as an adult she still believes that she is better than her family. She seems to have always considered herself superior, trying to improve their minds with knowledge that they â€Å"didn’t necessarily need to know†, and then later she says that â€Å"no matter where they ‘choose’ to live† she will try to see them. This implies that Dee would prefer them to live elsewhere—perhaps in a better area or in a place that is more convenient for her to visit. Dee seems to be ashamed of her family, but Maggie has never left them, and she has learned all about her heritage from her family members. The third is the use each sister will put the quilts to. Dee wants them to hang on a wall and look at. She seems to think they will â€Å"prove† that she has regained her cultural heritage. She does not understand that she could have had it all along if she had wanted to. Maggie will actually use the quilts for the purpose they were intended, and she knows that the quilts represent a link to her family as well as to her culture. Maggie and Dee fight over the quilts because they represent different things to each of them. For many reasons, Maggie deserves to have them more than Dee does. Maggie is the sister who understands and accepts that family, culture, and the quilts are all linked together and are all part of the heritage that Dee rejected.

Friday, September 27, 2019

Retail Market Analysis Coursework Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Retail Market Analysis - Coursework Example It has been observed that the retail industry of the United Kingdom is going to expand in size by around 15% in the coming 5 years. A value of around 312 billion pounds may be attained by the United Kingdom. Source: www.cbi.org.uk/.../10%2007%2026%20DTS%20NACE%20note%20final. pdf The retail sector of the United Kingdom has a value of 8% of the total gross domestic product of the country. The different retail industries in the United Kingdom have developed immensely in all areas such as home wear, health and beauty retail industry, electrical goods, garments industry, e-retail, furniture and floor coverings and other such types of retail sectors. Northern Ireland is one of the regions where tremendous amount of retail growth has been observed. Vancouver Trading Incorporated is planning to start its retail operations in the United Kingdom in the industry of white goods. This report is an overall analysis and advice of the level of retail of white goods in the United Kingdom. ... ng to invest their purchases on white goods, the consumer behavior aspects are also discussed and following this the advice is given to Vancouver Trading Incorporated for making their investments in the United Kingdom retail market of white goods. Retail trends over recent years In the white goods retail industry, the home appliances and the dishwashers are the main products that have a high share and high value of the total market of the white goods industry. The economical and social state of the United Kingdom is extremely important factors as they may directly impact the white goods retail industry in the market. The demand for white goods is directly related to the housing market of the United Kingdom. The more the consumers plan to shift in houses the more the market will increase for the white goods as many household appliances are needed for doing different chores of the house. The housing market and economical state affect the consumer purchasing power of white goods. If cus tomer’s purchasing power is low then they may opt for cheaper goods and also the white good products will be bought more if there are more people moving into the houses where there is a requirement for white goods. Moving in houses tend to trigger the need and requirement for different types of household products and appliances. The movement into houses can include the category of moving into a house the first time or by replacing the houses and therefore would require a replacement in the white goods products. If the value in growth becomes difficult to achieve then it may highly difficult to attain growth in volume of white goods products. The potential growth areas of the white goods retail industry is in the Central Europe and the Eastern Europe. The population in these areas is above

Thursday, September 26, 2019

Perfect learning environment and functioning of school tribunal Essay

Perfect learning environment and functioning of school tribunal - Essay Example At the same time it is the process by which an individual acquires and develops knowledge, understanding, skills, interests, and attitudes that are necessary to meet life situations. The effect of learning can be witnessed in the behaviour of an individual at various instances. Human has been able to progress just because of his capacity to make profit out of his and other’s experiences. His customs, manners, etc are the product of his learning. â€Å"Learning is the cognitive process of acquiring skills and knowledge†(Learning, n. d). It causes behavioural changes in ones’ life because of the constant interaction with the environment and the extra knowledge acquired about the environment. It is a continuous process which starts from the birth and ends only at the time of death of a person. It is a complex process which depends on many individual characteristics like socioeconomic background, attitude, philosophy of life, intelligence, physical and mental health, the environment in which learning occurs, genetic traits etc. Because of the dependability of various factors, it is difficult to have two persons with same learning abilities. School is a place where the teaching and learning process formally begins in one’s life. It is not necessary that all the schools provide same type of learning environment to the students. ... What makes the prefect learning environment? â€Å"Curriculum, instruction and assessment are the major means for effective learning. In the curriculum area, educators must place emphasis on intuition, feeling, sensing, and imagination, in addition to the traditional skills of analysis, reason, and sequential problem solving†(Learning styles, 2008). It is impossible for a teacher to teach everything related to a specific topic. On the other hand if the teacher was able to develop interest among the students about that particular topic, the students will do the rest part of the learning process by themselves. In other words, developing positive feeling, imagination, intuition etc can make the learning process easy. Curriculum plays an important role in preparing proper learning environment. As mentioned earlier, learning is a complex task and hence it is necessary to control the parameters which affects the learning judiciously. For example, it is difficult to stimulate learnin g in a noisy environment. Learning is a process which requires the combined efforts of the teachers and the students. The transfer of learning takes place from the teacher to the students only if the teacher was able to deliver his/her lecture in an appropriate manner. In order to help the teacher to deliver the lessons in an organized manner, students required to observe strict silence in the class. In other words, discipline is the primary requirement for preparing a proper learning environment. If the teacher keeps on delivering the lectures and the students keep on doing something else, learning will never take place. The students should follow the teacher with utmost care in order to learn the topics properly.

Becoming an ATF Agent Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Becoming an ATF Agent - Essay Example All ATF agents are required to receive at least a bachelor’s degree. The individual must be at least twenty-one years old and no older than thirty-seven. There are a number of smaller requirements as well. In these regards the individual must, â€Å"Complete and pass the ATF special agent assessment test and the Treasury Enforcement Agent exam† (Jess, 2011). Potential ATF agents also undergo stringent background testing, including a polygraph test. In addition, it’s noted that you will need to, â€Å"undergo a physical exam and drug screening. If you are selected to become an agent, you will also participate in a much more specific law enforcement training program† ("Criminal justice degrees," 2011). While ATF agents must receive a four-year degree, there is not a specific major or degree the individual must receive; although many ATF agents pursue studies in criminal justice, law, or related fields. In addition there are specific paths within the ATF that require post-graduate coursework. In terms of cost, there is a great amount of cost differential based on the type of education – public or private – the individual seeks. In addition, concerns related to room and board also make the cost highly relative. Once individuals are hired as ATF agents there is also a considerable amount of training. It’s noted that the individual undergoes, â€Å"9 weeks in Glynco, GA where new agents are trained in surveillance, arrest techniques, firearms training and other skills.   New agents then spend 13 weeks at FLETC where they are trained on explosives, bomb scene investigation and other similar areas† ("Atf agent career," 2011). Even as there are considerable requirements to become an ATF agent, the beginning salary is commensurate with the extensive training; in these regards, beginning agents make approximately $25,000 per year, but within a few years can make nearly $50,000. In conclusion,

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Abstract Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 27

Abstract - Essay Example The initial construction involved changes of building materials. The other change involved the introduction of new architecture as a depiction of various victories and accomplishments. There was also addition of more rooms to cater for entertainments. The other part of the paper focuses on the structure of the palace. The structure is shown based on Victorian era. This part also offers a comparison analysis of the building and how it could have been different if it was built in the current societies. The last part of the paper carries the concluding remarks. Buckingham Palace is located in the City of Westminster and is the residence and office of the British monarch for over four centuries. The place is owned by the British government and is extended for the public and private use of the ruling monarch, which has to be given up when the King or Queen leaves their position. Buckingham Palace, originally known as Buckingham House, has housed generations of British monarch beginning from Queen Victoria and later including prominent rulers such as Edward VII, Queen Elizabeth and George VI. John Nash and Edward Blore mainly designed the Palace but later structural and other changes were incorporated in the original design to accommodate the changing needs and tastes of the ruling monarch. This paper will attempt to shed light on the history, structure and use of one of the most important houses in Britain- the Buckingham Palace. The site that is considered the Buckingham Paalace today was in the beginning three sites: Buckingham Gardens, Goring House and Arlington House. As the need for more space was required according to the lifestyle of the Dukes and rulers, the surrounding sites were added to the original Buckingham Gardens. Buckingham Palace began as Buckingham House when John Sheffield, the first Duke of Buckingham built the house in 1702. The Palace as one sees it today

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Information resource managment Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words - 1

Information resource managment - Essay Example With the help of information resource management, government as well as corporate organizations have focused on controlling the lifecycle of varied important data from past to present. Information resource management is divided into two groups such as operational and business planning. Modern organizations have arranged their confidentiality of the information resource more accurately by dividing the information into two groups. In the past, information had been recorded in papers and currently varied organizations use technological gadgets to preserve important data. Government has enacted different rules and regulations to preserve information in a more effective way. As per Clinger-Cohen Act of 1996, government has supplemented information technology management for improved handling of information. To upload information resource management for Chief information officer (CIO) has come to the forefront as a key player in the organizational context. Nowadays, CIO is responsible for m anaging information of almost every government as well as corporate organization. In the present arena, organizational functions had been divided under varied departments. Consequently, CIO has become one of the most important persons, who usually look after every departmental process within the organization. On the other hand, in order to highlight the role and responsibility of the CIO, it can be claimed that through strategic governance a CIO can enhance the effectiveness of the organization. Apart from this, the responsibility of a CIO is to maintain the organizational structure, through which overall capability of the organization can be improved for current period as well as future period1. In order to highlight the identity along with the roles and responsibilities of the selected CIO Alan Levine, it can be determined that he is the CIO of the Kennedy Center Washington DC. Moreover, it is also acknowledged that throughout his life Alan Levine

Monday, September 23, 2019

Globalisation Coursework Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

Globalisation - Coursework Example Globalisation ushered the unavoidable priority to comply with market forces, when compared with complying with the local government’s economic prerogatives (Barrera, 2008). The ethics of the global economy forces local governments to bend to the strong pressures of the global environment to come to terms with the global marketplace economic agreements (Ervin, 2008). Likewise, a company that is located in the United States can sell similar products to current and future customers located in Japan, Korea, or Singapore, without fearing globalisation’s business climate change (Greenwald, 2008). In addition, a company that is located in Argentina can send its products to current and future clients located in the United Kingdom (Homann, 2007). The above discussion clearly shows that the risk of not finding current and future customers for the company’s products is reduced. The opening up of the global marketplace to a company located in any part of the world reduces th e risk of not generating the company’s required revenues. Globalisation reduces Expense Risks Globalisation has leveled the playing field, in terms of generating expenses. ... In addition, the hammer manufacturing company located in Poland can purchase its quality manufacturing raw materials from a supplier located in Sweden (Bella, 2009). An apparel making company that is set up in Peru can buy its clothing raw materials from preferred current and future suppliers located in Dubai (Marmolejo, 2012).The above discussion offers convincing proof that globalisation drops the related risks of not finding current and future suppliers for the company’s raw materials. Changing from dealing with only the local community’s current and future suppliers to the bigger global list of current and future suppliers decreases the company’s risk of not finding available raw materials. Globalisation reduces Profit Risks Globalisation has leveled the playing field, in terms of generating profits. A research shows that many countries have benefitted from their embracing the global business environment. Some of the countries that benefitted from globalisati on include East Asian nations, India, and China. Later, some African countries joined the globalisation bandwagon. The global business market segment triggers corresponding both positive and negative effects on the nations’ local industries (Das, Another Perspective on Globalisation, 2010). A book publishing company that is set up in Russia can profit from selling its books in Vietnam’s bookstores, in compliance with the states’ liberal minded political leaders’ penchant to enter the global business stage (Blum, 2008). A food company that is located in New Zealand can dependently profit from exporting its products to Australia (Lane, 2008). A car manufacturing company can profit

Sunday, September 22, 2019

Psychology discussion Essay Example for Free

Psychology discussion Essay The findings from this research that trigrams in an organised list will be recalled better than those in a disorganised list have supported the evidence of Millers theory. Miller (1956) found that the magic number 7+-2 can be increased using the method called chunking. This would relate to this piece of research as the amount of individual letters remembered was a lot bigger than the value 7+-2. Participants in the organized condition on average recalled about twenty one letters, and in the disorganized condition they recalled about nine letters. This supports Millers view; that more items can be remembered if they are recalled in chunks. This experiment can be extended to investigate the theory of expert chess players having better chunking abilities than novice players (Chase and Simon (1973)). The expert chess players could recall more information about the relationship of chess pieces than those of amateur chess players, the experts could recall up to 30 pieces of information, compared to only seven pieces for amateur players. This links to my experiment because using the technique chunking on an organised and disorganised list of words, led to an improvement in the number of trigrams recalled in the organised condition rather than the disorganised condition. In the organized list around 21 individual letters were recalled, compared to only 9 in the disorganized list. This supports Chase and Simons view that chunking can lead to better recall. My experiment was based on a previous study by Bowers in 1969; the results produced are similar to those obtained by Bowers. Table comparing the result of my study and Bowers study: This Study Bowers Study Average words recalled % of Words Average words recalled % of Words Organised 7. 1 71% 16. 9 65% Disorganised 2. 9 29% 4. 94 19% The results are quite similar although the results above have a higher percentage of words recalled for both the organised and disorganised list compared to Bowers results, however this is due to the fact that more words were involved in Bowers list: 26 compared to the 10 words used on my list. This will have had an affect on memory as the participant is challenged to remember more words. Bower used a theme of minerals; whereas in my experiment it involved a mixture of random trigrams. This could have affected the ability to recall; especially if Bowers participants had greater knowledge than others. However this problem did not occur in my experiment as it was not based around one particular theme. On the whole my results are similar to those obtained by Bowers. E2- Strengths and Weaknesses of the investigation: A strength of this investigation was the method used. This was a laboratory experiment. This method was very reliable and accurate as it allowed manipulation and full control over the variables (i. e. whether the participant is given the organised or disorganised list of trigrams). Therefore the results which were obtained were reliable, and the experiment could be easily replicated by another researcher. A strength of this experiment was that ethics was taken into consideration as informed consent was used to gain approval from the participant, to take part in the experiment. Participants were told they were taking part in a psychology experiment. Also confidentiality was abided by as well as all participants had the right to withdraw there results at any time, also none of their personal details were taken such as names and address. A weakness of this experiment could be the design; as an independent groups design was used; there may have been individual differences between participants. As those participants in the organized condition may have been more intelligent than those in the disorganized condition; this could have lead to them recalling more trigrams than those in the disorganized condition. E3- Consideration of alternative method: An alternative method could be used to test the affect of organisation on memory recall rather than an experimental method. A field experiment can be used so the test can be carried out in a natural setting. The new test can be carried out in school; for example a teacher can carry out an examination on students by testing a group of students to remember a list of abbreviations. This would be testing the ability to recall organized trigrams. Another classroom could be asked to play a game; where their partner gives them three random letters; if they answer a question wrong in a quiz they must recall the three letters they were told at the beginning. A new disorganized trigram would be used every time a question was answered incorrectly. This would then allow you to test the ability to recall disorganized trigrams. An advantage of this over the other method is that it would be carried out in participants everyday settings; therefore it would be more realistic, which would give the experiment more ecological validity. This method will also reduce demand characteristics. Students will believe that this is a real test, and therefore they will pay attention and take the task seriously. Although they will not know it is a task into memory; they will believe it is an important test. This method would be relevant for the aim and hypothesis of the study, as it would show if there is a clear difference, in the organized and disorganized trigrams recalled and it would also improve the reliability of the results. E4- Application of findings and suggestion for future research: In conclusion, this investigation has found that 16-18 year olds on average recall more trigrams from an organised list than a disorganised list. This research has proven that chunking and organization does increase the capacity of short-term memory. Therefore a link can be made to the real world for example if someone has to remember security numbers or phone numbers. Short codes can be chunked into one unit, although longer series of numbers like phone numbers may be chunked into two or three sections. This will help to aid recall, also chunking and organisation can help with revision. For example, by revising from notes arranged in an organised style this should organise the data in the brain and encourage better recall in exams and therefore good exam results. This research can also be applied when people do daily shopping. For example items of a similar nature can be chunked together into one group, e. g. , peas, cabbage and broccoli could be chunked under a vegetables group, so that they can be remembered as one chunk rather than three individual units. This research can be applied to future research by investigating if using chunking technique for exam revision can aid better recall thus better exam results. For example teachers could hold revision sessions using call cards which are chunked into small amounts of detail for the student to remember. They can then test to see if students with revision aids did better than those without.

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Lg India Core Competencies Marketing Essay

Lg India Core Competencies Marketing Essay Indian telecommunication industry is considered one of the biggest markets worldwide. LG Electronics entered the Indian telecom market in 1997 as a subsidiary named LG Electronics Pvt. Ltd. The entering strategy was just to create a company presence in India (Tolputt, 1999). LG faced many difficulties in developing a market share in mobile sector but later somehow managed to achieve 4.6% while the leading company Nokia was ranking at 64%. Quickly thereafter, LG was able to attain a position of 14.4% in urban market due to adoption of CDMA technology. In the year 2007-2008 only it generated revenue of above $30 billion which went up to about $54 billion in 2012. Great company, great people is the philosophy of LG. This philosophy indicates the LGs vision to provision and adopt innovative technology. Technology has the power to alter consumers expectations. LG has achieved remarkable success due to its core competencies, availability and exploitation of resources. Promotion of LG mobile phone is mostly celebrity endorsed or cricket sponsored to increase public visibility of the brand. Other forms of advertising are also adopted to boost the sales and electronic media has proved to be the most effective of all for LG in the recent years (Gulati and Jain, 2010). LG India Core Competencies Network Capabilities Previously Indian market was crowded with GSM enabled phones and LG came up with CDMA technology focused on urban populations requirements of fast mobile data availability. This was a positive move and resulted in developing the brand name for LG in India. Moreover, LG smartphones began to attain public attention embedded with HSDPA compatibility and 3G data interface thus video calling was introduced to the people. LG Electronics has also registered itself as a patent to operate in latest LTE technology standard and working hard to boost its hardware / software capabilities (Levi and Jeyaseeli, 2011). Innovative Product Development So far LG has launched more than 50 mobile handset models in a couple of years most of these fall in the smartphone category. LG Optimus series has become among the most popular mobile series in India due to feature rich Android platform and latest hardware specifications. This series is easily catering several entry level smartphones for design conscious consumers. Android OS has become the largest smartphone platform recently and it has more than 20% market share in Indian telecom market last year. Pricing policy of LG has always focused low to mid range customers while features offered are always great as offered in pro devices of other companies. In order to satisfy the growing economies, LG has always paid attention to keep its handsets affordable for masses (Mukherjee, 2011). All the LG registered phone models are prepared in Korea and these handsets are customized according to Indian standards prior to their launch in the subcontinent. The batteries provided with these handsets are made of high quality material that is durable and efficient to withstand extensive operating conditions. All the batteries meet the minimum 10 hours talk time limit and on standby can hold charge for at least a whole month. LG phones offer young consumers a great fun and entertainment platform with fully supported multimedia capabilities. LG handsets are very stylish and sleek either these are QWERTY phones or touch sensitive phones. For music lovers, KS360 delivers the beats while KM710 is an elegant phone for fashion loving people featuring crispy LCD display. LG shine series is also very popular with metallic body and perfect finish (Verma, 2007). Multi-Sourcing Company has adopted a multi-sourcing strategy based on human resource for developing chipsets thus adding efficiency to the overall product development process. So, production staff works side by side with chipset producers for accessing the technical capabilities of phones based on these chipsets (Venkatesh and Chaudhuri, 2004). Marketing and branding teams also work alongside during designing of the handsets and launching model based ideal promotion strategies. After that the quality checking team for vigorous testing of the phones hardware efficiency, durability and reliability. Software compatibility issues are also addressed by the quality check team before approving any device (Chong, 2003). Distribution Network LG has developed an extensive distribution chain targeting retail outlets in an organized way to build the brand value. Distribution network of LG has spread nationwide and once a product is launched, it becomes available countrywide in the entire major and tier 2/3 cities simultaneously. Thus distribution network is among the sole competencies of LG Electronics and is a useful tool that plays its role in generating revenues. There are about 80,000 retails outlets in India operating at present and above 70% outlets of the country feature and sell LG mobile phones. LG Electronics offers its Indian distributors much higher percentage for a better display and promotion of their mobiles to lure their customers (Levi and Jeyaseeli, 2011). Strategic Alliances Over the years, LG is known to develop by making collaborations and acquisitions in the Electronics market. Every company has its strengths and weaknesses so realizing this fact LG has partnered strategically with other organizations to meet the customer expectations and delivering premium quality mobile phones. Some of the companies that are working alongside with LG and providing technical assistance in different fields are; Skype, Sun, Intel, Qualcomm, Yahoo, Google, Adobe and Dolby etc. These companies provide their registered software/hardware solutions for certain features of LG marked mobile handsets (Levi and Jeyaseeli, 2011). Research and Development In order to achieve the status of worlds leading phone manufacturer, LG has invested heavily in the research and development. The company believes that without research and development of technology success can not be achieved in telecom industry due to ever changing standards and innovations. LG Electronics has achieved expertise in all modern cellular technology ranging from GSM, CDMA and WCDMA. Moreover the company is preparing itself to introduce LTE technology is upcoming range of cell phones. LTE is the fastest data standard in mobile technology that can transfer data at ultra speeds that exceed ten times as compared to regular ADSL connections. There is a recent report published by the Taurus Investment that recognizes LG as the registered 3rd largest patient in LTE segment (Levi and Jeyaseeli, 2011).

Friday, September 20, 2019

Virtual Reality :: essays research papers

Virtual Reality Virtual reality as of recent, while still extremely new, has become the topic of many opposing viewpoints. It has caught the eye of the general public for several reasons. Perhaps, this is mainly because of all the possibilities which virtual reality creates. Note that the possibilities are not pre- determined as either good or bad, mainly because there are many different opinions to the future of this developing technology. However, despite the controversy this new technology has aroused, society should not remain skeptical. Virtual reality has the potential, if used correctly, to become a great technological advancement that will aid society in many ways. In the past, virtual reality has been nothing more than a small step beyond video games. However, it is now apparent that this technology can be used for more practical purposes. These purposes include national defense, surgical procedures and various other applications. Society has not fully acknowledged the benefits of virtual reality as of yet because it is still under development. The reason for virtual reality remaining in its development for so long is mainly due to its complexity. The hardware that has developed so far is unable to make the large calculations required by a virtual reality based machine. However, as apparent in recent years, technology is advancing at an extreme rate. This is another reason why society's hopes for virtual reality should and have remained unwaivered. In Orenstein's story, she gives the perspective of the average citizen who is obviously uncertain about the uses and/or affects that virtual reality will have upon society. The show she attended was quick to point out the practicality of virtual reality however, it still left much to be desired. It seems that Orenstein was disgruntled when she came to an exhibit and the topic of cyber-sex was raised. Perhaps it wasn't just that it came up but more like how it came up. The idea of a man and woman being in a virtual world and a man fondling the womans breasts was probably, although very much possible, not a great first impression. It gave Orenstein the opportunity to explore the evils that virtual reality makes possible. After a while, Orenstein realizes that just like the computing age has hackers, the virtual age will have it's own high-tech delinquents. You can't prevent technology from being abused. There will be those who use VR rudely, stupidly, dangerously--just as they do the telephone or computer. Like the telephone and the modem, its popular rise will also eliminate the need for certain fundamental kinds of human contact, even as it enhances our ability to communicate. (Orenstein 258)

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Langston Hughes Essay -- essays research papers

Langston Hughes is a key figure in the vision of the American dream. In his writings his African-American perspective gives an accurate vision of what the American dream means to a less fortunate minority. His poetry is very loud and emotional in conveying his idea of the African-American dream. Most of his poetry either states how the black man is being surpressed or is a wish, a plea for equality. He does not want the black man to be better than everyone else, but just to be treated equal. Able to meet their dream with the same level of success and failure as everyone else. This is most simply stated in Hughes poem I Dream a World. Hughes begins the poem by stating:   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  “I Dream a World where man   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  No other man will scorn,   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Where love will bless the earth   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  And peace its paths adorn'; (World Lines 1-4) Here Hughes is stating very generally and unspecific how he wishes for peace and love. Something that everyone would like but will probably never come true. This statement is an excellent attention getter. It tells about a dream that everyone would like without singling out any group of people to blame for the dream not coming true. Then as the poem goes on he gets more and more specific. Hughes then goes on to dream that everyone “Will know sweet freedoms way,/Where greed no longer sa...

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

The Holocaust Essay example -- History, Jewish Community

Through the course of history, the Jewish people have been mistreated, condemned, robbed, even put to death because of their religion. In the Middle Ages, they were forced to wear symbols on their clothing, identifying them as Jews. The dates 1933 to 1945 marked the period of the deadly Holocaust in which many atrocities were committed against the Jewish people and minority groups not of Aryan descent. Six million innocent Jews were exterminated because of Hitler’s â€Å"Final Solution.† This paper will exhibit how Adolf Hitler used the three anti-Jewish policies written in history, conversion, expulsion, and annihilation to his advantage. In the fourth century when the Christian church gained power in Rome, the Jews considered the Christians as a Jewish sect early on. Soon their beloved Talmud was being burned because they would not accept the Christian doctrine. By the sixteenth century, the Jews were given an ultimatum, to convert to the Christian faith, which was part of the first anti-Jewish policy or face expulsion. The second anti-Jewish policy was expulsion. This policy was still used when the National Socialist rose to power in 1933 (Bartov,O., 2000). After Germany surrendered in 1918, Adolf Hitler was in the hospital recovering from mustard gas poisoning. He felt the deep humiliation of and for the German Reich, and it was then the hatred and bitterness towards the people he felt were responsible began. In 1919, Hitler wrote his first and last political statement regarding the â€Å"Jewish Question.† He proclaimed the Jews were a Jews altogether (Wistrish, R., 2003). Hitler had three long- term idealistic goals he would share with audiences as he spoke about Nationalism and the econo... ...s and sent an order for the traitors to be imprisoned. Before the Allied troops arrived, Nazi soldiers removed many Jews from the death camps in an effort to kill as many more refugees as they could (Rubenstein, W., 1999). Through the course of history, the Jewish people have been mistreated, condemned, robbed, even put to death because of their religion. In the Middle Ages, they were forced to wear symbols on their clothing, identifying them as Jews. The dates 1933 to 1945 marked the period of the deadly Holocaust in which many atrocities were committed against the Jewish people and minority groups not of Aryan descent. Six million innocent Jews were exterminated because of Hitler’s â€Å"Final Solution.† This paper exhibited how Adolf Hitler used the three anti-Jewish policies written in history, conversion, expulsion, and annihilation to his advantage.

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Walking and Word Swag

Got Swag? 1. What is â€Å"swag†? Being a commonly used word in the 21st century, â€Å"swag† has arisen from song lyrics and populated through postages on popular online websites such as â€Å"Facebook†, â€Å"Twitter†, and â€Å"Tumblr†. It has stemmed from the word â€Å"swagger†, which is a noun that means a very confident and typically arrogant or aggressive manner. This manifestation of the word â€Å"swag† has caused most teenagers to use this term to define themselves. Swag is utilized as a noun to describe a person’s mannerisms as â€Å"cool† when compared to the ordinary layperson.In the contemporary society, a key judgment of one’s character is whether their actions contain swag or not. Swag can be defined either negatively or positively through judgment of everyday actions such as walking, talking, and self-appearance. 2. As aforementioned, the way a person walks or talks may show whether they have swag or not. Someone who would be considered to have swag would walk in a confident and self-assured manner. Key characteristics of such a person’s walking habits are having a straight posture, meticulous foot placing, and a subtle arm sway.In addition to walking habits, smooth-talking teenagers are believed to show swag by the way they speak. For example, a guy can smooth-talk and flirt with a girl to persuade her on a date with him. On the other hand, a girl can talk with swag by conveying a more confident tone. She can assertively talk about her unique qualities (e. g. her curvy body) as a sign of swag. Aside from being able to â€Å"walk the walk† and â€Å"talk the talk†, having a unique fashion sense also differentiates the layperson from one who has swag. 3. The appearance, grooming, and outfits of people may or may not indicate that they have swag.Regarding clothes, swag is gauged by one’s sense of style. The median used for this gauge is the dressing habits of many celebrities in the music industry. For instance, outfits like adjustable snapback hats, Jordan sneakers, varsity leather jackets, or sweatshirts by the label Obey are types of swag clothing. Celebrities such as rappers, Soulja Boy, Tyga, and as well as singer, Justin Bieber, wear swag type of clothing. The iconic status of celebrities influences people to dress like them. Conversely, there are many people who see the style swag in a negative manner.People such as myself do not like to dress that certain style and would rather dress in a more formal style. For example, my style of clothes would be considered GQ or Gentlemen Quality-like, which comes from a fashion magazine style regarding formal clothes. My GQ style is different from the swag style because it consists of classy clothes such as polo shirts, button downs, ties, and suits. The style dichotomy between GQ and swag shows how different types of people can have opposing opinions on the use of the word swag. 4 . My opinion of the word is in a negative connotation but others use the word as a compliment.Teenagers use swag in their everyday lives to describe their activities. For examples some teenagers consider swag as sexual activity, buying the newest swag style clothes or doing what they believe is â€Å"cool†. Everyone has different opinions of what action is considered â€Å"cool† or not. As a result, many people have the opinion that swag is an unprofessional word with unnecessary and meaningless content. The different views of the word show two different opinions. 5. A personal story involving the word swag involved one of my achievements on the dance floor of a party.My friend George and I were always partying on the weekends and were invited to a private high school party. On the night of the party, I got the chance to dance with one of the best looking girls there. As I was dancing, I saw George point at me and heard him say, â€Å"Now that is swag† to anothe r girl standing next to him. George was indicating that I had swag because I was dancing with a beautiful girl. After my dance, I told him to not label anything I do as swag. The reason why I said this stems from my non-conforming personality. I told him that I view swag has a negative description and would prefer not to change my opinions about it. . The slang word swag is common in this new generation. Therefore, the use of the word is more popular among teenagers. Having swag or what is considered to be swag is simply a word for people to describe what they believe to be as â€Å"cool†. As portrayed in the narrative, telling a person they have swag may even be taken offensively; especially if that individual does not believe in the society – defined definition of the word. Conclusively, the different aspects of walking, talking, and style can be gauged as a negative or positive outlook on swag based on one’s personal opinions.

Monday, September 16, 2019

Professionalism in the Workplace Essay

  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   This article deals with concepts such as incivility in the workplace and â€Å"incivility spiral.† The authors describe how the incivility spiral could occur and offer research propositions for further study. Moreover, they explain the implications that workplace incivility pose for practitioners and researchers alike (Andersson & Pearson, 1999).  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The authors trace the literature on the importance of civility in society. Such literature is rich with conclusions that state that civility offers functions and moral implications. Literature on the matter likewise describes the workplace as the last bastion of civility. However, they perceive a change in this opinion, brought about by many factors, such as employee diversity, autocratic environments, and hiring of part-time workers, which affect the trend of incivility and aggressiveness in the business world (Andersson & Pearson, 1999).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The authors described workplace incivility as actions that are characterized by rudeness or discourtesy. They represent violations of the norms of an organization. One form taken by workplace incivility is aggression, which is manifested in acts like physical abuse, harassment, and sabotage. These acts are bound by the characteristic of intent to injure another (Andersson & Pearson, 1999).  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Incivility in the organization has a spiraling effect, where secondary spirals result from primary ones. This tendency requires managers to correct their actions that may contribute to the growth of incivility as an organizational norm. Moreover, there should be efforts at curtailing incivility within the organization (Andersson & Pearson, 1999).  Church, A. H. & Waclawski, J. (1999). The Impact of Leadership Style on Global   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Management Practices. Journal of Applied Social Psychology 29(7), 1416-1443.             This article is concerned with the trend in businesses today to go global. Church and Waclawski describe how the trend has influenced schools into studying and implementing strategies relative to the new global economy. More importantly, they describe how the trend pushes corporations to adopt a global approach in their businesses (Church & Waclawski, 1999).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   In this light, the authors noted the work of other researches, which suggest that great competitive advantage in the new global market could be achieved if a corporation has a good value system and corporate culture. This could only be achieved if a corporation’s leaders and managers acquire a broader perspective that involves progressive ideas such as change management and cultural flexibility. Thus, the new trend of globalization led to another trend, consisting of the focus of organizations to hire people with international experience or background (Church & Waclawski, 1999).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The authors then focused on leadership style, which they believed was a good predictor of managerial behavior. They categorized the types of leaders according to their key characteristics. Thus there is a group of transformational leaders who concentrate on new directions and new goals, and transactional leaders who focus on getting the job done by maintaining the status quo. For these authors, transformational leaders are more likely to manifest globalization behaviors, given their tendency to focus on change (Church & Waclawski, 1999).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   After collecting data from 391 senior managers and reports within a global organization, Church and Waclawski found that there were better reports and ratings for transformational leaders. These leaders are those who â€Å"engage in behaviors relating to systems thinking, change management, relationships, and learning.† Thus, they concluded that there is a significant relationship between leadership style and actual practice of global leadership (Church & Waclawski, 1999). Fairholm, M. R. (2004). Different Perspectives on the Practice of Leadership. Public   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Administration Review 64(5), 577-590.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   This article presents the position that public managers need to learn about leadership in order to be effective. They need to have a clear understanding of the concept of leadership, and not merely â€Å"practical and intellectual permission† to exercise it. The authors believe that since public managers are involved in leadership activities, it is useful to accept the nature of public administration as involving the practice of leadership (Fairholm, 2004).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Fairholm explains that issues on leadership often get ignored by public administration academics. However, there are now certain people who appreciate the need to focus as a practitioner would. Since there is a link between leadership training and public sector management, then it is important that public managers receive training on leadership (Fairholm, 2004).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Fairholm also explains leadership through the leadership perspectives model, which utilizes four encompassing leadership perspectives. This model views leadership as (1) (scientific) management; (2)excellence management; (3) values-displacement activity; (4) whole-soul (spiritual) leadership. The theory holds that while these different perspectives are distinct from each other, they are related hierarchically. In addition, they all help achieve a complete notion of leadership. (Fairholm, 2004). Johnsrud, L. K., Heck, R. H., & Rosser, V. J. (2000). Morale Matters: Midlevel Administrators and Their Intent to Leave. The Journal of Higher Education 71(1),   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   34-59.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   This paper focuses on the concept of morale, which refers to the â€Å"level of well-being that an individual or group is experiencing in reference to their worklife.† The authors feel that while there are intuitive guides that tell people that morale affects the performance of an organization, there are no clear measures to support such intuition. Thus, this article deals with the problem of accurately defining and measuring morale within an organization. In particular, it focuses on the relationship between morale and its effect on midlevel administrators (Johnsrud, Heck & Rosser, 2000).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   There are many factors affecting the morale of midlevel administrators. These include the feeling that they have no power to make decisions for the organization, and yet they are held responsible for the outcomes of such decisions. Moreover, they do not have tenure and they have limited opportunity for professional development. All of these factors affect the morale of midlevel managers (Johnsrud, Heck & Rosser, 2000).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Finally, the authors established the construct validity of morale, using three dimensions, namely, quality of work, mutual loyalty, and institutional regard. All of these were selected because they represent attributes associated with morale (Johnsrud, Heck & Rosser, 2000). Knights, D. & McCabe, D. (2003). Governing through Teamwork: Reconstituting   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Subjectivity in a Call Centre. Journal of Management Studies 40(7), 1587-1619.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   This article is a study of the various factors at play in a call center, which is a workplace that is governed by distance. Thus, it focuses on the concept of teamwork, and the technique of appealing to employees’ personal motivations to reach organizational goals. Among those personal motivations include sociability, unity, autonomy, and the desire for an enriching work experience (Knights & McCabe, 2003).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The authors note a crucial element of team playing, which is individual responsibility. This implies that employees should have a certain degree of autonomy or self-determination, rather than simply follow directions of superiors. They agree with the literature on the matter that a certain degree of staff autonomy could be good for the organization. However, they feel that the effect could be that the work becomes â€Å"simultaneously more rewarding and more demanding.† Thus they believe it was necessary to further study the factors that influence the various effects of autonomy to staff members (Knights & McCabe, 2003). Makkai, T. & Braithwaite, V. (1993). Professionalism, Organizations, and Compliance. Law & Social Inquiry 18(1), 33-59.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   This article is concerned with factors that affect organizational compliance. This concern stems from the observation that organizational compliance with the law is very important, considering the potential of an organization to affect large number of people. However, an organization is not made up of a single person, but many individuals with different mindsets. Hence, it is important for an organization’s chief executive officer to learn how to control the attitudes and performance of the organization in order to ensure compliance with state regulations (Makkai & Braithwaite, 1993).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Makkai and Braithwaite reviewed literature on the professionalism and organizational compliance, and opined that professionalism is a complex concept that requires further investigation. More particularly, they aim to concentrate on three aspects of professionalism and their effects on organizational compliance. These aspects are values, professional autonomy, and role orientations (Makkai & Braithwaite, 1993).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   After deriving relevant data from the Australian nursing home industry, the authors found no significant direct relationship between organizational compliance and professional orientations. Since there was little support for the hypothesis that role orientations and values affect organizational compliance, the authors suggested further studies on the matter (Makkai & Braithwaite, 1993). Sabet, M. G. & Klingner, D. (1993). Exploring The Impact of Professionalism on   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Administrative Innovation. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory:   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   J-PART 3(2), 252-266.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   This paper reports a study of three major conceptual areas vis-à  -vis organizational theory. These three areas are professionalism, innovation, and drug-testing policies. For professionalism, the authors seek to determine the relationship between professionalism and innovation from the organizational perspective (Sabet & Klingner, 1993).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The authors review the literature on the three conceptual areas. For professionalism, they discuss how professionalism â€Å"has been viewed as a structural and attitudinal variable.† They note that the literature define professionalism through five attitudinal variables, such as autonomy, belief in self-regulation, belief in service to the public, â€Å"use of professional organization as a major referent, and a â€Å"sense of calling to the field (Sabet & Klingner, 1993).†   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   After sending questionnaires to personnel directors with a study population of 209, the authors found that managers with higher professionalism are more likely to implement policies, such as drug-testing, that affect the tendency of the organization to innovate. Furthermore, they found a significant relationship between the degree of professionalism of a personnel director and the character of the policies he implements. (Sabet & Klingner, 1993). Sarros, J. C., Tanewski, G. A., Winter, R. P., Santora, J. C. & Densten, I. L. (2002).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Work Alienation and Organizational Leadership. British Journal of Management   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   13, 285-304.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   This article describes a study conducted to determine the relationship between a leader’s behavior and organizational structure and work alienation. The authors studied factors that alter workplace structure and culture. Moreover, they are concerned about understanding how to reduce alienation or the feeling of powerlessness at work (Sarros, Tanewski, Winter, Santora & Densten, 2002).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The authors noted that throughout the literature of work alienation, the concept, meaning and measurement of the term had been vague or ambiguous, which led to the variance in interpretations of the concept. Thus, they quote both the earliest and latest interpretations of alienation. They quote Marx and Weber, who believe that â€Å"alienation is a state (or feeling) in which the job is external to the individual,† and such feeling is caused by lack of autonomy in the workplace. They also cite Seaman who described alienation by enumerating its five components, namely, powerlessness, meaninglessness, normlessness and isolation, and self-estrangement (Sarros, Tanewski, Winter, Santora & Densten, 2002).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   After taking a survey using questionnaires distributed to more than 600 officers of fire departments, the authors concluded that employee behavior and attitudes, such as work alienation, could be affected and mitigated by actions taken by organizational leaders. For example, such could be accomplished by mitigating the rigidity extant in hierarchical structures within the organization and thereby reduce the tendency for work alienation (Sarros, Tanewski, Winter, Santora & Densten, 2002). Thamhain, H. J. (2003). Managing innovative R&D teams. R&D Management 33(3),   Ã‚  Ã‚   297-311.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   This paper involves a study of the subject of innovation vis-à  -vis project performance in a technological environment. The author observed that innovation is an effective tool in business, particularly in ensuring superior performance, good products and services, and lower cost. The author likewise notes that interdisciplinary teamwork could make the difference between the success and failure of a business. Such teamwork is perceived to be more crucial than mere generation of innovative ideas at the R&D stage. Thus, it is posited that a team has more chances at success if it is able to â€Å"facilitate a team environment conducive to market-orientation innovation† (Thamhain, 2003).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   In order to determine the factors relevant to innovative R&D performance, the author sought to understand the barriers and drivers to good performance. The study led to the understanding of the type of managerial leadership and organizational environment that is conducive to innovative performance. The author chose the research format of an exploratory field research, due to constraints caused by complexities or the absence of theories on the subject. Thus, he utilized questionnaires and qualitative methods, such as participant observation and in-depth retrospective interviewing in order to understand the challenges involved in the R&D process within a company. The interviews and questionnaires he used were previously used in other field studies related in the subject of R&D management (Thamhain, 2003).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Data gathered from 74 project teams and 935 professionals were analyzed using standard statistical methods. The author found that team members’ perception of reality affect their behavior. Actions of a manager could affect and stimulate team behavior. This finding relative to perceptional measures is important because it guides managers into acting towards the encouragement of a project environment that is conducive to the needs of the team (Thamhain, 2003).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The author then discusses the various influences to innovative team performance, and classified them into three, namely, â€Å"(a) people, (b) organizational process, tools and techniques, and (c) R&D work/task.† As to the first group of factors, he found personal interest, professional challenges and recognition, and pride as significant drivers. As to the second group, he found effective communications, stable priorities and goals, effective support systems, and cooperation as important elements of effective performance. Finally, he found certain personal aspects of work, such as job skills, experience, and interest, to be relevant drivers for effective performance. Proper understanding of these factors lead to better innovative performance (Thamhain, 2003). Vance, C. & Larson, E. (2002). Leadership Research in Business and Health Care.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Journal of Nursing Scholarship 34(2), 165-171.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   This article is a summary and analysis of the literature on the subject of leadership, particularly in the fields of health care and business. Vance and Larson noted that the concept of leadership had evolved over the years that it had been the constant subject of research. Thus, it has been subject of various conceptualizations and has been viewed as both a behavioral and perceptual phenomenon.   Vance and Larson likewise believe that it would be pointless to endeavor to reach a single definition of leadership, because it could take various definitions, depending on the various aspects of leadership concerned (Vance & Larson, 2002).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   In order to arrive at the outcomes of leadership on organizations, groups, and individuals, the authors conducted a study by reviewing studies spanning thirty years, from January 1970 through December 1999. After screening articles and categorized, the authors analyzed the data using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). They found that most studies focused on the topic of leadership characteristics, training and measures. They also found that leadership in the business setting had been treated with more frequency than in health care literature (Vance & Larson, 2002).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Given their findings, the authors concluded that there is a need to change the focus of research on the subject of leadership. They noted that there are now many indicators of this need, such as the increasing demand for leaders in health-related fields and the globalization of organizations. The authors likewise focused on certain aspects of leadership with little literature, such as the relationship between leadership and organizational outcomes, causal relationships, intervening factors, and leadership intervention styles (Vance & Larson, 2002).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Finally, the authors criticize how the literature on leadership in the business and health care literature is limited to descriptive treatment of the subject. The fields of health care and business provide fertile ground for research on causal relationships and leadership styles, which could yield vital findings for the subject’s literature (Vance & Larson, 2002). References Andersson, L. M. & Pearson, C. M. (1999). Tit for Tat? The Spiraling Effect of Incivility in   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   the Workplace. The Academy of Management Review 24(3), 452-471.   Church, A. H. & Waclawski, J. (1999). The Impact of Leadership Style on Global   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Management Practices. Journal of Applied Social Psychology 29(7), 1416-1443. Fairholm, M. R. (2004). Different Perspectives on the Practice of Leadership. Public   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Administration Review 64(5), 577-590. Johnsrud, L. K., Heck, R. H., & Rosser, V. J. (2000). Morale Matters: Midlevel   Ã‚   Administrators and Their Intent to Leave. The Journal of Higher Education 71(1),   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   34-59. Knights, D. & McCabe, D. (2003). Governing through Teamwork: Reconstituting   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Subjectivity in a Call Centre. Journal of Management Studies 40(7), 1587-1619. Makkai, T. & Braithwaite, V. (1993). Professionalism, Organizations, and Compliance. Law & Social Inquiry 18(1), 33-59. Sabet, M. G. & Klingner, D. (1993). Exploring The Impact of Professionalism on   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Administrative Innovation. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory:   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   J-PART 3(2), 252-266. Sarros, J. C., Tanewski, G. A., Winter, R. P., Santora, J. C. & Densten, I. L. (2002).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Work Alienation and Organizational Leadership. British Journal of Management   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   13, 285-304. Thamhain, H. J. (2003). Managing innovative R&D teams. R&D Management 33(3),   Ã‚  Ã‚   297-311. Vance, C. & Larson, E. (2002). Leadership Research in Business and Health Care.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Journal of Nursing Scholarship 34(2), 165-171.   

Sunday, September 15, 2019

The M/S Milad Nor Company Essay

1) Read chapters 1 – 5 and review the PPTs we covered in class. 2) Expect 5 or 7 short-answer questions General Questions – 1. In class we reviewed three firms in three different countries. The M/S Milad Nor Company in Afghanistan, Caritex in Bulgaria, and Obod in Montenegro. Each company was faced with different problems and issues. Please briefly summarize the similarities between the firms and their individual issues. How do the problems faced by these firms compare to problems faced by similar firms in more developed countries? 2. Your stock market simulation calls for you to invest in securities with a significant presence outside the US – debt, equity, commodities, currencies, derivatives†¦ In researching equities trading on exchanges outside of the US what similarities/differences have you found compared to firms trading on exchanges in the US? Chapter 1 1.The term globalization has become very widely used in recent years. How would you define it? 2.What does an MNE need in order for it to create value through the globalization process? 3.How does the concept of capitalism actually apply to the globalization process of a business, as it moves from elemental to multinational stages of development? 4. Define and explain the theory of comparative advantage 5. Key to understanding most theories is what they say and they don’t. Name four or five key limitations to theory of comparative advantage. 6.Why have Eurocurrencies and LIBOR remained the centerpiece of the global financial marketplace for so long? * These are domestic currencies of one country on deposit in a second country * The Eurocurrency markets serve two valuable purposes: * Eurocurrency deposits are an efficient and convenient money market device for holding excess corporate liquidity * The Eurocurrency market is a major source of short-term bank loans to finance corporate working capital needs (including export and import financing) * LIBOR is the most widely accepted rate of interest used in standardized quotations, loan agreements, and financial derivatives transactions * 7. Which assets play the most critical role in linking the major institutions that make up the global financial marketplace? * The linkages are the interbank networks using currency. Without ready exchange of currencies the market is hard-pressed to operate efficiently. Chapter 2 1. How does ownership alter the goals and governance of a business? Public ownership may be wholly state-owned or partially publicly traded. State Owned Enterprises (SOEs) are created for business purposes rather than for regulation or civil activities. Private firms may be publicly traded (stock) or privately owned by partners or family. 2.Why is this separation so critical to the understanding of how businesses are structured and led? 3.Explain the assumptions and objectives of the shareholder wealth maximization model. 4.Explain the assumptions and objectives of the stakeholder wealth maximization model. 5.Define the following terms: a.Corporate governance b.Agency theory c.Stakeholder capitalism 6.In Germany and Scandinavia, among other countries, labor unions have representation on boards of directors or supervisory boards. How might such union representation be viewed under the shareholder wealth maximization model compared to the corporate wealth maximization model? 7.In many countries it is common for a firm to have two or more classes of common stock with differential voting rights. In the United States the norm is for a firm to have one class of common stock with one-share-one-vote. What are the advantages and disadvantages of each system? 8.What are the key differences in the goals and motivations of family ownership of the business as opposed to the widely held publicly traded business? 9.It has been claimed that failures in corporate governance have hampered the growth and profitability of some prominent firms located in emerging markets. What are some of the typical causes of these failures in corporate governance?p34 10. Do markets appear to be willing to pay for good governance?p36 Chapter 3 1.Under the gold standard all national governments promised to follow the â€Å"rules of the game.† This meant defending a fixed exchange rate. What did this promise imply about a country’s money supply? 2.If a country follows a fixed exchange rate regime, what macroeconomic variables could cause the fixed exchange rate to be devalued? 3.What are the advantages and disadvantages of fixed exchange rates? 4.Explain what is meant by the term impossible trinity and why it is true. 5.Fixed exchange rate regimes are sometimes implemented through a currency board (Hong Kong) or dollarization (Ecuador). What is the difference between the two approaches? 6.High capital mobility is forcing emerging market nations to choose between free-floating regimes and currency board or dollarization regimes. What are the main outcomes of each of these regimes from the perspective of emerging market nations? 7.On January 4, 1999, eleven member states of the European Union initiated the Europe an Monetary Union (EMU) and established a single currency, the euro, which replaced the individual currencies of participating member states. Describe three of the main ways that the euro affects the members of the EMU. 8.Why did the fixed exchange rate regime of 1945–1973 eventually fail? 9.How did the Argentine currency board function from 1991 to January 2002 and why did it collapse? DEAD Chapter 4 1. Business managers and investors need BOP data to anticipate changes in host country economic policies that might be driven by BOP events. 2. From the perspective of business managers and investors list three specific signals that a country’s BOP data can provide. 3. What are the two main types of economic activity measured by a country’s BOP? 4. Why does the BOP always â€Å"balance†? 5. If the BOP were viewed as an accounting statement, would it be a balance sheet of the country’s wealth, an income statement of the country’s earnings, or a funds flow statement of money into and out of the country? 6. What are the main component accounts of the current account? Give one debit and one credit example for each component account for the United States. adjust 7. The US dollar has maintained or increased its value over the past 20 years despite running a gradually increasing current account deficit. Why has this phenomenon occurred? Chapter 5 1. What were the three major forces behind the credit crisis of 2007 and 2008? 2. Why were LIBOR rates so much higher than Treasure yields in 2007 and 2008? What is needed to return LIBOR rates to the lower, more stable rates of the past? 3. What were the three key elements of the package used by the U.S. government to resolve the 2008-9 credit crisis? 4. Why are the sovereign debtors of the Eurozone considered to have a problem that is different from any other heavily indebted country, like the United States? 5. Why has the case of Portugal been termed a â€Å"case of contagion† rather than a sovereign debt crisis? 6. What are the three primary methods which might be used individually or in combination to resolve the European debt crisis?

Saturday, September 14, 2019

Humanism and Secular Humanism

The question has been raised: who is in control of curriculum in our school? Not just the choosing of the precise books, but who is in charge of the contents of the books that curriculum directors can choose from? Once the answers to these questions are found, what should be done if they point to one group? So many problems in the United States have arisen when the people discover that one group is violating the people†s rights in some way by not allowing others power, that it would be logical to conclude that it would be perceived by many to be unfair if it is found that one interest group chooses what all American children learn, especially if that interest group is furthering their own interests by doing so. However, finding out the answers to these questions is quite difficult at best. The subject has been written about extensively, and since there are so many opinions, the unbiased truth is virtually impossible to come by. In this topic, it has been at least suggested by others that everyone is biased, including our Supreme Court, so one must tread carefully in stating so-called â€Å"facts.† Humanism and secular humanism and what they have to do with present educational curriculum will be discussed for the remainder. Though human nature tends to make all humans biased in some way, both sides of the argument have been researched and will be documented until fair conclusions can be made. First, the term â€Å"humanism† must be defined. To do this fully, the definition of â€Å"humanism† will be given from the dictionary, and then humanists themselves will have a turn to define themselves. Merriam Webster†s Collegiate Dictionary terms â€Å"humanism† as â€Å"a doctrine, attitude, or way of life centered on human interests or values; esp.: a philosophy that usually rejects supernaturalism and stresses an individual†s dignity and worth and capacity for self-realization through reason.† The same dictionary defines â€Å"doctrine† as â€Å"a principle or position or the body of principles in a branch of knowledge or system of belief: DOGMA.† To understand fully what this is pointing to, one must then look at the definition of â€Å"dogma†-â€Å"a doctrine or body of doctrines concerning faith or morals formally stated and authoritatively proclaimed by a church.† Most will agree that an accredited collegiate dictionary is an acceptable place to look for information, and here it is shown that humanism can be tied to a religion. People who claim to be humanist would also seem to be a good place to look for a formal term for humanism. Rebecca Bushnell writes of early humanist pedagogy when she says, â€Å"This is a humanism based on belief that people are largely responsible for what happens on this earth; committed to tolerance, attention to the differences among people and the need to treat them with equal respect; shaped by a cheerful acceptance of ambivalence and contradiction; and informed by an almost painful historical consciousness, which sees the past as estranged yet able to illuminate present concerns (8).† This explanation definitely sounds like what most people want to feel, or at least what they claim to, but humanism is more than this. Humanism is also defined by the worship of man; Curtis W. Reese writes, â€Å"There is a large element of faith in all religion. [Christianity has faith] in the love of God; and Humanism in man as the measure of values†¦Hypotheses, postulates, and assumptions in their proper realm are comparable to faith in the realm of religion. In this way I speak of the faith of Humanism.† Another humanist deals with the humanistic beliefs in right and wrong: â€Å"In humanism right and wrong are defined in terms of consequence to human life (10).† To further clarify what humanists believe, more writings of humanists will prove that they consider humanism to be their religion. Gerald A. Larque, a man who signed the Humanist Manifesto II, writes, â€Å"Our religion is based upon the best that we know about our cosmos, our world, and ourselves†¦We recognize our oneness with the cosmos and our spatial and temporal minuteness†¦We see ourselves as the highest life-form the evolutionary process has developed†¦(11).† The 1979 Humanist of the Year, who co-founded and edited The New Humanist, also believes humanism to be a religion: â€Å"†¦Humanism in a naturalistic frame is validly a religion†¦(7).† A Humanist Manifesto, also known as the Humanist Manifesto I, continually describes humanism as a religion. â€Å"The time has come for widespread recognition of the radical changes in religious beliefs†¦In every field of human activity, the vital movement is now in the direction of a candid and explicit humanism†¦religious humanism (13).† From the Humanist Manifesto II, one can see that Kurtz thinks of humanism as † a philosophical, religious, and moral point of view† and that it offers a believer a formula for salvation and a future sanctuary (12). Other humanists who claim humanism as their religion illustrate what â€Å"religion† means to them. Julian Huxley says in Religion Without Revelation, â€Å"There are whole religions which make no mention of God. The most notable example, as already mentioned, is that of Buddhism (14).† Furthering this thought, â€Å"Religion, then,†¦will mean a ruling commitment practiced by a community of individuals to what they believe creates, sustains, saves, and transforms human existence toward the greatest good (15).† With this, one has sufficient information concerning basic humanism beliefs. Besides the fact that humanists themselves admit to being a religious organization, there are several examples of how the American legal system treats humanism-as a religion. In a Supreme Court case, Torcaso v. Watkins, a Notary Public from Maryland was reinstated after being fired for refusing to proclaim a belief in God. The Court recognized religions that do not believe in God as â€Å"real† religions when it wrote, â€Å"Among religions in this country which do not teach what would generally be considered a belief in God are Buddhism, Taoism, Ethical Culture, Secular Humanism and others (7).† This statement will be considered later in the discussion. All formal humanist membership organizations in America claim 501(c )3 religious tax exempt status or deem themselves expressly religious. Dr. Paul Kurtz states, â€Å"Even the American Humanist Association (3,500 members)†¦has a religious tax exemption (7).† An editor of The Humanist magazine, Paul Blanshard says, â€Å"There has been another victory for those who would interpret the word â€Å"religion† very broadly†¦the appellate court reversed by a unanimous decision. Now the F.O.R. [Fellowship of Reconciliation] is established as a â€Å"religious† organization, with full right to tax exemption (7).† Tax-exempt status is serious business. In an article titled â€Å"The Religion of Democracy: Part II,† Rudolph Dreikurs argues that humanism should be thought of as religious because of the form and content. â€Å"The new religion will probably be humanistic. It will be concerned with man and not with God.† This â€Å"new religion† will have new principles, new rituals, and new symbols (16). Those involved in the humanist religion also have their own ministers, and â€Å"minister† is defined in the Merriam-Webster dictionary as â€Å"one officiating or assisting the officiant in church worship.† Harvard University has its own Humanist chaplain, Thomas Ferrick, who is also â€Å"one of the 34 full- and part-time chaplains that make up the United Ministry at Harvard and Radcliffe, and he also serves as executive director of the Humanist Association of Massachusetts† local chapter (17).† In Auburn University†s Student/Faculty Directory, under â€Å"Auburn Pastors and Campus Ministers-Humanist,† there is a Humanist Counselor for the students (7). The University of Arizona†s Student Handbook for 1990-1991 lists â€Å"Humanists† under the title â€Å"Religious Services† (7). These facts should only prove further that Humanism is a religion. Now that humanism is understood, it is time to link humanism with present-day educational curriculum. Paul Vitz conducted research on the censorship of student†s textbooks, funded by the National Institute of Education, a part of the federal government, and came to the conclusion that they are strongly biased for the Secular Humanist worldview. â€Å"Whether one calls it secular humanism, enlightenment universalism, skeptical modernism, or just plain permissive liberalism, the bottom line is that a very particular and narrow sectarian philosophy has taken control of American education (18).† This seems to be a documented conclusion from an recognized institute, but yet it has not been fully discussed with the American public at large. Humanists themselves have admitted to the fact that they use the classroom to further their religion. John J. Dunphy states in his A Religion for a New Age, â€Å"[T]he battle for humankind†s future must be waged and won in the public school classroom by teachers who correctly perceive their role as the proselytizers of a new faith: a religion of humanity that recognizes and respects the spark of what theologians call divinity in every human being (19).† Another man who calls himself a â€Å"Humanist minister†, Charles Francis Potter, says: â€Å"Education is thus a most powerful ally of Humanism, and every American public school is a school of Humanism. What can the theistic Sunday-schools, meeting for an hour once a week, and teaching only a fraction of the children, do to stem the tide of a five-day program of humanistic teaching? (20)† He then continues, â€Å"So very Humanistic is modern education that no religion has a future unless it be Humanism (20).† These men obviously believe very strongly not only that humanism is being taught in American public schools, but also that it should overpower other religions. John Dewey, who signed the Humanist Manifesto I, wrote a book, Education Today, in which he voices many opinions about education and how humanism should be implemented. â€Å"I believe that†¦it is the business of every one interested in education to insist upon the school as the primary and most effective instrument of social progress and reform†¦(21)†. On page eighty he says, â€Å"We certainly cannot teach religion as an abstract essence. We have got to teach something as religion, and that means practically some religion.† He also believes public education to be the vehicle by which this â€Å"deeper religion† is promoted (21). Now that it has been documented that the humanist religion is being funneled into public schools, it is time to give a few examples of the things in school curriculum that are humanist in nature. First, homosexuality is being pushed as acceptable behavior to students. The schools are teaching that it should be looked at as positive to have â€Å"full sexual adjustment without any hang-ups caused by outdated religious concepts. And our schools are the main tool used to teach the young people this human freedom (6).† Not only is homosexuality taught as â€Å"okay,† but they are also teaching the theory of evolution in full force. Teachers are not allowed to present any kind of argument for creationist theory; Jerry Bergman, Ph.D., states, â€Å"In fact, it is often considered inappropriate to criticize evolution, let alone present the creationist position (6).† This occurs without much argument, despite the fact that there are many books very critical of evolutionary theory â€Å"written by either evolutionists or by individuals who at least do not agree with the creationist perspective (6).† The biology textbook Of Pandas and People by Percival Davis and Dean H. Kenyon was included by the trustees in Plano, Texas, in the school curriculum, and humanist educators lost all pretense of â€Å"tolerance† because the book â€Å"acknowledges the abundance of design manifest in the natural world and thus reasonably postulates an intelligent Designer (7).† Homosexuality and evolution are just a couple examples of humanist perspective in the schools. The logic these humanists use, that schools are the best place to push their beliefs, makes complete sense, even â€Å"falls in line† with some of the basic thoughts of sociological theory: that â€Å"no knowledge is value-neutral; no knowledge is free of presuppositions. All knowledge is rooted in the social structure in particular ways and reflects (even if indirectly) the particular interest of different sectors of the population (4).† Reasonably, this idea is also true for knowledge given to children in public schools. Even John Dewey said (as quoted earlier) that the teaching of religion is inevitable in schools, that â€Å"some religion† would have to be taught. Is this what the American Constitution allows? It is wrong, and very punishable, for public schools to advocate Christianity or to teach any of its beliefs, but the teaching of humanism†s beliefs remains untouched. Humanists tend to label certain â€Å"unpopular† ideas (those that they do not agree with) as religious, and those they do support as non-religious. For instance, schools are free to teach â€Å"thou shalt not steal, lie, or murder† but not â€Å"thou shalt not commit adultery or take the name of God in vain.† What is the difference between the two statements, which are both from the Ten Commandments, the most basic Western religious law? Other concepts taught presently that have a religious origin are â€Å"the goal of treating others as one would like to be treated, the need to take an occasional break from one†s work, to be balanced in all things, and the attempt to be fair to all people (6).† One of the biggest objective of liberals in recent years has been to insure equal rights for all people, yet this idea was adopted as a religious goal over 2,000 years ago in the Christian Scriptures. Bergman states, â€Å"Incidentally, the source of the belief in the equality of man is the Bible, few ancient books espouse this concept, and it is foreign to most non-Christian peoples (6).† Since these concepts are biblical in origin, why are the students not told this? What about the fact that abortion, homosexuality and fornication are talked about in school, but teachers are not allowed to discuss the religious side of the issue, only the side deemed non-religious? Though the public schools are teaching a type of religion, obviously, the students are not informed about it; in fact, the topic of religion is not deemed important (6). Community schools, before federal aid was instigated, were to reflect the values of those who lived in it. â€Å"What happened to â€Å"community public schools† that were to reflect the values of the community? They disappeared when federal aid was approved. Now only what is approved by secularists [humanists] in Washington is ‘neutral† (22).† As James David Hunter documents, â€Å"Public education arguably shares a common ethical orientation with modern humanism, particularly to the degree that these perspectives are advanced without respect for cultural traditions that might dissent (4).† Community†s values are no longer taken into account when curriculum is chosen. In recent times, the idea of choice in education has come to life with a system of tuition vouchers, but criticism of this choice has been rampant among the educators who believe in humanism. Richard A. Baer, Jr. writes: â€Å"The point is this: Education never takes place in a moral and philosophical vacuum. If the larger questions about human beings and their destiny are not being asked and answered within a predominantly Judeo-Christian framework, they will be addressed within another philosophical or religious framework-but hardly one that is â€Å"neutral.† The arrogance and philosophical implausibility of secular humanism are demonstrated by the insistence of many humanists that their position possesses such neutrality, lack of dogma, and essential rationality. It is an arrogance that also quickly becomes coercive and imperialistic, as is clearly seen in the widespread opposition among such educators toward genuine choice in education, for instance, the kind of choice that would be possible through a system of education tuition vouchers (23).† If America is a land of freedom, one would assume that Americans could choose where to send their children to school and what they are taught. However, not all Americans can afford private schools, so beyond their local public school, there is no choice. With all of this discord, it would be surprising if no one had taken this matter to the courts. They have, in some aspects. First one must look at the history of the First Amendment. The First Amendment was written to guarantee that the interest of certain faiths would not be expanded by direct or indirect benefaction of the government, at least not to the hindrance of smaller, minority faiths. When originally written, its intention was to curb the â€Å"deep and long-standing tensions† between various inter-Protestant competitions (4). Of course, they also encompassed conflicts between Protestants and Catholics and between Jew and Christians, whose beliefs are quite different, though these conflicts were minor because Catholics and Jews comprised less than two percent of the population at the start of the nineteenth century. When these populations increased, their full religious liberties were still restricted, continuing past the beginning of the twentieth century (4). This failure to fully perfect the ideals of the First Amendment is important because â€Å"many of the social dynamics taking place in the present find a parallel in the past (4).† Not only have the numbers of Muslims, Mormons, Hindus, and Buddhists grown, but the secular humanists have increased from two percent in 1962 to about eleven percent in 1990. Though humanism is not the same kind of religion as Protestantism, Catholicism, and Judaism are determined to be, how should they be perceived for First Amendment purposes? The Supreme Court held a strict definition of religion-â€Å"Our civilization and our institutions are emphatically Christian†¦Ã¢â‚¬ -until the early 1940s, when it broadened the definition: â€Å"Religious belief arises from a sense of the inadequacy of reason as a means of relating the individual to his fellow men and to his universe-a sense common to men in the most primitive and the most highly civilized societies†¦It is a belief finding expression in a conscience which categorically requires the believer to disregard elementary self-interest and to accept martyrdom in preference to transgressing its tenets†¦Conscientious objection may justly be regarded as a response of the individual to an inward mentor, call it conscience or God, that is for many persons at the present time the equivalent of what has always been thought a religious impulse (4).† This expanded the criterion from the nature of belief in a divine being to the psychological function of belief (4). In 1961 the Supreme Court decided that a Maryland law violated the no establishment clause because it put â€Å"the power and authority of the State of Maryland†¦on the side of one particular sort of believers-those who are willing to say they believe ‘in the existence of God† (4).† This new functional definition was not used with the no establishment clause by opponents until the case Smith v. Board of School Commissioners. The plaintiffs believed that most of the textbooks in the county public school system promoted secular humanism†s religion, which would violate the no establishment clause of the First Amendment. The first judgment in the case favored the plaintiff; however it was eventually overturned. A Washington Post columnist, Colman McCarthy, wrote: â€Å"A careful reading of the decision, as against a skimming of news accounts of it, reveals that Mobile families had a fair grievance: That what was taught in classrooms about religion was impeding the teachings of mothers and fathers at home about religion. What†s wrong with that complaint? (4)† What is wrong with that complaint? Surely every parent has the right to teach their children what they want to. It seems confusing to find that the Supreme Court did not believe humanist religion to be in school curriculum, especially when humanists themselves have admitted to the fact, as documented earlier. However, humanists have backtracked from their earlier, outspoken works. Paul Kurtz, quoted earlier, wrote his 1989 book, Eupraxophy: Living Without Religion, to â€Å"take back† all the earlier writings of humanists that claimed it a religion. He even coined a term-eupraxophy-to describe humanism without using the word religion. â€Å"Eupraxophy†¦provides a coherent, ethical life stance†¦it presents a cosmic theory of reality†¦defends a set of criteria governing the testing of truth claims†¦advocates an ethical posture. And it is committed implicitly or explicitly to a set of political ideals. Eupraxophy combines both a Weltanshuung and a philosophy of living.† Now, why would Kurtz do this after he had decided already that humanism was, in fact, a religion, his religion? Why? Kurtz realizes that if humanism is religion, then it will not be allowed in the schools: â€Å"For if humanism, even naturalistic and secular humanism, is a religion, then we would be faced with a violation of the First Amendment to the United States Constitution, which states that ‘Congress shall make no law respecting the establishment of religion or the free exercise thereof.† (24).† It causes more confusion in the whole topic when different people claim different things. The whole argument comes down to this: That academic freedom seems to be unequal among educators. There are many different religious beliefs in America, and most teachers would claim to have some kind of religion or world view. â€Å"Academic freedom is the ability of the instructor to teach what he/she feels is the truth about reality in an intellectually honest and reasonable way (6).† Teachers in the present day are not allowed to teach what they believe and why, because of the First Amendment. Humanists and Christians have both agreed that religion will be taught in the schools in one manner or another, and this causes a great problem because someone must choose which religion will be taught. Noebel writes in his Clergy in the Classroom: â€Å"Imagine a child enrolled in a public school and learning only what that public school imparted (with no outside interference from family, church, Christian teachers or Congressional chaplains). When he graduated, what would he believe? Without divine intervention, he wouldn†t have much choice: Secular Humanism would be all he knew. This situation is idyllic, as far as the Humanists are concerned. Because their doctrines are every bit as dogmatic as Christian doctrine, and because they view Christianity as a ‘rotting corpse,† they use their established position to censor any hint of positive Christian influence in the classroom. Though they posture as ‘open-minded,† ‘tolerant† folks, Humanists eagerly discriminate against Christianity in the classroom (7).† This is not fair, just as it would not be fair if America†s public schools taught strictly Christian doctrine. Excluding religion from the classroom, when the whole purpose of school is to teach the entire body of knowledge, is â€Å"censorship of the worst sort (6).† Many parents, Humanist or Christian, Buddhist or Catholic, are rightfully worried that their children†s teachers will indoctrinate their children with some specific religious belief. However, students are bright, reasoning people and do not gullibly believe everything a teacher says. Children who have strong prejudices against certain groups do not let go of them easily, even when a teacher tries to help that child overcome the prejudice. Also, a teacher†s ideas may spark a child†s desire to further research the topic so that the child comes to his own conclusions. If students are to become those who can debate important topics, it seems that removing all religious questions would hinder that which is significant for living a well-rounded life (6). Jerry Bergman gives the example of Australia to clarify whether it is possible to bring religion into the classroom. Only three percent of Australia†s population attends church regularly, but the schools still have classes in religious education as an â€Å"integral part of the school curriculum at all grade levels (6).† This brings the conclusion that religion in schools is feasible, and not just the religion of one group. In conclusion, the questions asked at the beginning have been answered, but not fully. It has been proven that Humanism is a religion, by quotes of many influential Humanists and by the Supreme Court, and that there is evidence of Humanist beliefs in our school curriculum, by a federal government study and by Humanist†s admittance. Many men, Humanist, Christian, and those with unknown beliefs, have agreed that education cannot occur without some religious worldview†s influence, and the topic does not seem to be dormant in their minds. The battle is not over; the writer is quite convinced that there will be more court battles concerning this issue. To have an education system that treats each person†s beliefs equally, there needs to be a change. Either separate all children into schools of their respective religions, or treat them as intelligent individuals with minds that deserve to learn about all religious views and the immense amount of history that goes with them. Shujaa, Mwalimu J. Too Much Schooling, Too Little Education: A Paradox of Black Life in White Societies. Trenton, New Jersey: Africa World Press, Inc., 1994. This book covered many areas of African-American education, and was a great background knowledge source. The topics most valid to my interests were the African experiences in schools, the analysis of African-American males† response to schooling, exploring exemplary African-American teachers† views, and African-Americans† communal nature of learning. Also I got great information concerning different school environments, and their effect on African-American students† education, which I then used to get strategies for teaching African-Americans from.